3:1 What advantage [GBT: preferment] then hath the Jew? or what profit is there of [BT: advantageth] circumcision?

3:2 Much every way [G: Much every manner of way; T: Surely very much] : chiefly [BT: first] , because that unto them were [G: + of credit] committed the oracles [B: words; T: word] of God.      qtext

3:3 For what if some did not believe? shall their unbelief make the faith [T: promise] of God without effect?

3:4 God forbid: yea, let God be true, but every man a liar; as it is written, That thou mightest be justified in thy sayings [G: words] , and mightest overcome when thou art judged.      qtext

[Rom 3:4 cf Psa 116:11LXX, Psa 51:4 LXX]

[Rom 3:4 cf Psa 116:11]

3:5 But if our unrighteousness commend [B: setteth forth; T: make more excellent] the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Is God unrighteous who taketh vengeance [G: punisheth] ? (I speak as a man [BT: after the manner of men] )

3:6 God forbid: for then how shall God judge the world?

3:7 For if the truth [GT: verity] of God hath more abounded [appear more excellent] through my lie unto his glory [T: praise] ; why yet [B: as yet; T: henceforth] am I also judged [G: condemned] as a sinner?

3:8 And not rather, ( as we be slanderously reported [G: as we are blamed; BT: as men speak evil of us] , and as some affirm that we say,) Let us do [G: why do not we] evil, that good may come? whose damnation is just.      qtext


(Rom 3:2) GF4: 74; IP3: 269

(Rom 3:4) GF3: 531 [cf Psa 116:11LXX, Psa 51:4 LXX]]

(Rom 3:6) GF3: 90?

(Rom 3:8) GF3: 524; JWJM 266


(Rom 3:2)

IP3:268f (1672): Peter was the minister of the circumcision, and he ... was to direct men to the Word within, and light within, yet he knew it was of great concernment to them rightly to read and be able to understand the letter without. Therefore, having first directed them to the Word of prophecy, to the path of the just, which is the inward, shining light, to the light which shines more and more in the dark place to them that give heed to it [2 Pet 1:19/Prov 4:18]; in the next place it was very proper, useful, and necessary to direct them how to read the Scriptures aright. For indeed the oracles of God were given to them, Rom 3:2, and they ought to be diligent in the reading of them, that they might understand the holy prophecies, and precious promises, &c., and reap the hope and comfort of them, and be made partakers of the divine nature [2 Pet 1:4], which is the thing promised.

(Rom 3:4)

GF3:531 (1659): And thou sayest part of the blame that men go to hell is in God; here thou wouldst make God unrighteous, who desires not the death of a sinner [Ezek 18:23LXX]. God is not to be blamed in any thing he doth, but to be praised, who is righteous in all his judgments: and God is not to be blamed, for God is truth, so let God be true, and every man a liar, Rom 3:4.

(Rom 3:8)

JWJM 266 (17–): To do evil that good may come of it is contrary to the doctrine of Christianity [Rom 3:8]; that when times are so cloudy that we cannot go forward in the way of clearness and purity, it behooves us in the depth of humility to wait on the Lord to know his mind concerning us and our children.


3:9 What then? are we better than they [G: more excellent] ? No, in no wise: for we have before [GBT: already] proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin;      qtext

3:10 As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one:      qtext

[Rom 3:10-12 cf Psa 14:1-3]

3:11 There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God.

3:12 They are all gone out of the way, they are together become [G: have been made altogether; B: are all; T: are all made] unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one.      qtext

3:13 Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit [BT: deceived] ; the poison of asps is under their lips:      qtext

[Rom 3:13 cf Psa 5:9, 140:3LXX; Jas 3:8]

3:14 Whose mouth is [T: mouths are] full of cursing and bitterness:

[Rom 3:14 cf Psa 10:7 LXX]


(Rom 3:9) GF3: 536; GF4: 117; IP3: 216; RBA 89; RBAF 69

(Rom 3:10-18) RBA 88; RBAF 68

[Rom 3:10-12 cf Psa 14:1-3]

(Rom 3:12) GF3: 109; MFS 91; MFU 230 [Rom 3:11f cf Psa 14:2f]

(Rom 3:13) GF6: 262; GF8: 171 [360]; JN2: 230f ; HPS 316 [cf Psa 5:9, 140:3LXX; Jas 3:8]

[Rom 3:14 cf Psa 10:7]


(Rom 3:9)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:9: IP3:216 (John 3:18)]

(Rom 3:10-18)

RBA 88f, RBAF 68 (1678, IV.2): ...the apostle Paul describeth the condition of man in the fall at large, taking it out of the Psalmist. [quotes Rom 3:10-18] What more positive can be spoken? He seemeth to be particularly careful to avoid that any good should be ascribed to the natural man; he shows how he is polluted in all his ways; he shows how he is void of righteousness, of understanding, of the knowledge of God; how he is out of the way, and in short unprofitable; than which nothing can be more fully said to confirm our judgment: for if this be the condition of the natural man, or of a man as he stands in the fall, he is unfit to make one right step to heaven.

(Rom 3:12)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:12: MFS 91 (John 5:29)]

(Rom 3:13)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:13: HPS 316 (Heb 10:29)]

GF8:171 (1679): And so let none spoil their families with bad lives, and unruly tongues [Jas 3:8], with letting the poison of asps be under their tongue [Rom 3:13], by which they spoil and corrupt their families; which begets into a loose and bad language; but that is to be bridled by the word of God: for "a soft tongue breaketh the bone [Prov 25:15]," "the tongue of the just is as choice silver [Prov 10:20], and the tongue of the just is health [Prov 12:18], and useth knowledge aright [Prov 15:2], and a wholesome tongue is a tree of life [Prov 15:4]; and who keepeth his mouth and his tongue, keepeth his soul from trouble [Prov 21:23]." And after that Solomon had spoken of a virtuous woman, he saith, "In her tongue is the law of kindness, and her children rise up, and call her blessed; and her husband also praises her [Prov 31:26,28]." He that hath an ear to hear, let him hear.


3:15 Their feet are swift to shed blood:      qtext

[Rom 3:15-17 cf Isa 59:7f]

3:16 Destruction [B: Heart’s grief] and misery [G: calamity; T: wretchedness] are in their ways:

3:17 And the way of peace have they not known:      qtext

3:18 There is no fear of God [G: The fear of God is not] before their eyes.      qtext

[Rom 3:18, cf Psa 36:1]

3:19 Now [T: Ye and] we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth [BT: all mouths] may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before [G: be subject to the judgment of; B: may be endangered to; T: be sudued to] God.      qtext

3:20 Therefore [BT: Because that] by the deeds [G: works] of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight [T: to end of 3:19]: for by the law is [GBT: cometh] the knowledge of sin.      qtext

[Rom 3:20 cf Psa 143:2; Gal 2:16]


[Rom 3:15-18 see under Rom 3:10-18]

[Rom 3:15-17 cf Isa 59:7f]

(Rom 3:15) IP1: 374

(Rom 3:17) IP3: 360 [cf Isa 59:8]

(Rom 3:17f) GF4: 315; GF7: 211 [211]

[Rom 3:18 cf Psa 36:1]

(Rom 3:19) IP2: 26, 44

(Rom 3:20-25) IP1:96-98 [see under individual verses]

(Rom 3:20) JN2: 603; JN3: 436; IP1: 96; IP3: 75; RBA 186, 197; RBAF 143, 150; HPS 358 (EB) [cf Psa 143:2; Gal 2:16]


(Rom 3:15)

IP1:374 (1660): [context: Proceedings against Quakers in Boston] But this is the nature of the persecuting spirit; first it seeks a cover to stop the mouth of its own conscience, and to hide its bloodthirsty actions from the eye of the world; and then its feet are swift to shed the blood [Rom 3:15] of the innocent. But the same Lord God of truth and righteousness, who hath unmasked the Papists, and unmasked the bishops, will unmask these also, and their nakedness shall more appear [Rev 3:18] than the others', who would hide themselves and their own cruelty with that covering, which they themselves have judged in others.

(Rom 3:17)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:17: IP3:360f (Heb 10:20)]

(Rom 3:17f)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:17f: GF4:315, GF7:211 (both Heb 12:17) ]

(Rom 3:19)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:19: IP2:25f (Rom 9:4)]

IP2:44 (1660): The fourth commandment [Exo 20:8-11] did not require the observation of a seventh day in general; but of a seventh day in particular, of those of whom it required it; for what the law required, it required of those who were under the law, and not of others. Rom 3:19.

(Rom 3:20)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:20: JN2:603 (Luk 12:35)]

IP1:96 (1658): [Paul] affirms that justification is not "by the deeds of the law." Rom 3:20. If a man could say with the young man, All these things have I done from my youth [Mat 19:20]; or as Paul, that he was as touching the law blameless [Phil 3:6]; yet could he not be justified thereby. And the apostle gives a mighty reason: "For by the law is the knowledge of sin [Rom 3:20]." Now justification is not by the making of sin known, but by that which saves and delivers from it. The knowledge of sin may put a man upon seeking out for justification; but it cannot justify him, but rather condemn him; but that which delivers him from the sin, which the law makes known, that justifies him.

RBA 196f, RBAF 150f (1678, VII.10): ...they object those sayings of the apostle where he excludes the deeds of the law from justification [quotes Rom 3:20 and 3:28]....[Answer under Jas 2:17-20]


3:21 But now the righteousness [T: + that cometh] of God without the [T: +fulfilling of the] law is manifested [G: made manifest; BT: declared] , being witnessed by [GT: having witness of] the law and the prophets;

3:22 Even the righteousness of [T: no doubt which is good before] God which is [G: omits; BT: cometh] by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference [G to 3:23] :      qtext

3:23 For all have sinned, and come short of [G: are deprived of; B: are destitute of; T: lack] the glory of [T: praise that is of valour before] God;      qtext

3:24 Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus:      qtext

3:25 Whom God hath set forth to be [T: made] a propitiation [G: reconciliation; T: seat of mercy] through faith in his blood, to declare his [T: shew the] righteousness for the remission of [G: by the forgiveness of the; BT: in that he forgiveth the] sins that are past, through the forbearance of God [G (3:26) through the patience of God; BT (B: 3:26): which God did suffer] ;      qtext

3:26 To declare, I say [GBT: to shew] , at this time his righteousness [T the righteousness that is allowed of him] : that he might be [T: +counted] just, and the justifier of him which believeth in [G: is of the faith of] Jesus.


(Rom 3:20-25) IP1:96-98 [see under individual verses]

(Rom 3:21f) GF6: 54; IP1: 96f

(Rom 3:22) JN1: 80

(Rom 3:23) GF3: 251; IP1: 114; IP2: 267; RBA 222; HPS 362, 399 (EB); WPT 92, 210

(Rom 3:24) GF3: 193; JN3: 6; IP1: 97f; RBA 193; RBAF 147; HPS 382 (EB)

(Rom 3:24f) GF5: 94; JN2: 504; IP4: 70

(Rom 3:25) JN3: 119; IP1: 98, 321; IP3: 459, 480; RBA 177; EQ 319 (BC); HPS 343, 356 (EB); WPR 467; WPT 207, 209

(Rom 3:25f) IP4: 102; RBAF 135

(Rom 3:26) IP3: 26; HPS 358 (EB)


(Rom 3:22)

JN1:80 (1653): And we deny all who say they have faith in Christ, and yet their righteousness is not perfect [margin: Rom 5:17]; but this faith we witness, that receives the righteousness of God, even the free gift of righteousness by Jesus Christ [Rom 3:22]; and this is perfect, which is the righteousness of faith; and all who have not this righteousness are in the self-righteous, which is not perfect; and these come short of the righteousness of God and would establish their own righteousness.

(Rom 3:23)

GF3:251 (1659): So how can ye or your people either, know any thing of the fundamentals of religion, or salvation, that deny the light that doth enlighten every man that cometh into the world [John 1:9]? Christ Jesus, the foundation of God [2 Tim 2:19], the wisdom of God [1 Cor 1:24], the end of the prophets, and of the law [Rom 10:4], types, figures, and shadows? Ye have denied the very key that opens to it. Therefore ye all come short of the glory of God [Rom 3:23]; and teachers and people are all fallen into ignorance, since the days of the apostles in the apostacy. But now Christ is come, and coming to reign.

IP2:267 (1662): The goodness of God endureth for ever [Psa 52:1]. And though his creature man (who should have been subject and obedient to him) hath sinned against him, and by motions and inclinations of his own will and wisdom (out of the principle of his pure life, which was to have been his guide and governor) hath fallen short of his glory [Rom 3:23]; yet he still pleaseth to visit his poor lost creature with loving-kindness and mercy, and with various dispensations of his life, according to his pleasure.

(Rom 3:24)

JN2:504 (1655): ye bring many scriptures but not one of them that speaks of a justification without. That we are "justified freely by his grace [Rom 3:24]" we own; and that God hath set him forth to be a "propitiation [Rom 3:25]"; that "he was wounded for our transgressions [Isa 53:5]," and that "he laid on him the iniquities of us all [Isa 53:6]," and his sufferings we own: and we witness what he did, he doth still in us, and bears and supports us, and so "the remainders of the sufferings of Christ that are yet behind" are by him "fulfilled in us" [Col 1:24?]: and by his mighty working in us is the man of sin [2 Th 2:3] cast out.

RBA 193, RBAF 147 (1678, VII.8): We stand justified and saved in and by him, and by his Spirit and grace (Rom 3:24; 1 Cor 6:11; Tit 3:7). So again reciprocally we are hereby made partakers of the fullness of his merits, and his cleansing blood is near to wash away every sin and infirmity and to heal all our backslidings [Jer 3:22], as often as we turn towards him by unfeigned repentance and become renewed by his Spirit. Those than that find him thus raised and ruling in them have a true ground of hope to believe that they are justified by his blood. But let not any deceive themselves, so as to foster themselves in a vain hope and confidence that by the death and sufferings of Christ they are justified, so long as "sin lies at their door" (Gen 4:7), iniquity prevails, and they remain yet unrenewed and unregenerate; lest it be said unto them, "I know you not [Luk 13:27]."

(Rom 3:24f)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:24f: IP4:70f (Rev 14:6f)]

(Rom 3:25)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:25: IP1:321 (Rev 19:7), IP3:480 (1 Jn 1:7), WPR 467 (John 1:16f)]

HPS 343 (Elizabeth Bathurst, 1679): For Abraham saw Christ's day afar off, and rejoiced [John 8:56], many ages before the Scriptures were recorded; and by the same faith, no doubt, Abel looked beyond the firstlings of his own flock [Gen 4:4], to Christ the first-born of God, who was to be made an offering for sin, as the anti-type, which these typified, otherwise his sacrifice had not obtained acceptance with the Lord: for he is the the propitiation for our sin, and through faith in his blood we come to know remission; which agrees to that of the Apostle, Rom 3:25.


3:27 Where is boasting then [BT: then thy rejoicing] ? It is excluded. By what law? [T: +By the law] of works? Nay: but by the law of faith.      qtext

3:28 Therefore we conclude [B: Therefore we hold; T: For we suppose] that a man is justified by faith without the deeds [G: works] of the law.      qtext

3:29 [G: + God,] Is he the God of the Jews only? is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes, [GBT: + even] of the Gentiles also:

3:30 Seeing [GBT: For] it is one God [T: God only] , which shall justify the circumcision by [G: of; T: which is of] faith, and uncircumcision through faith.

3:31 Do we then make void the law [G: make the law of none effect; BT: destroy the law] through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish [BT: But we rather maintain] the law.      qtext


(Rom 3:27) GFJN 17; GF7: 41 [34], 115 [118]; GF8: 183 [361], 204 [372]; JN2: 80; JN3: 82, 92, 460; 591 (HS); IP1: 327; IP2: 406; IP3: 302, 310; IP4: 204; EQ 175; SBD 45 [may be confl w 2 Tim 3:2]

(Rom 3:28) GF3: 525; GF4: 286, 302; GF6: 54; RBA 197; RBAF 150

(Rom 3:30) EQ 327 (BC); WPR 217; WPT 12

(Rom 3:31) GF2: 239; GF3: 325; JN1: 512; JN2: 241; JN3: 121; IP2: 52; IP3: 82


(Rom 3:27)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:27: GFJN 17 (Rom 8:2), IP1:327 (Jas 2:9), IP2:406 (John 8:7)]

GF8:183 (1679): And such [who go from Christ] will cry against the order of the truth, light, grace, spirit, gospel, faith, and word of life [1 Jn 1:1], which brings into the order of Christ, and the order of the living eternal God of truth [Psa 31:5], who is a God of order, and delights in order, having pleasure in them that live in his spirit, and law of life [Rom 8:2], and the gospel, and its order. For blessed is the man that delights in the law [Psa 1:1f], or order of God; it was so under the old covenant. Much more blessed is the man or woman that delights in the law and order of love [Jas 2:8], and the law and order of faith [Rom 3:27], and the law and order of life, and of the gospel, the power of God [Rom 1:16]. . . .

JN2:80 (1655): And these are the boasters, who would justify themselves & despise others; but by the righteousness of faith is boasting excluded [Rom 3:27]: and here is no justifying of self, but denying self [Mat 16:24] and self-righteousness, and exalting the righteousness of God [Phil 3:9], which is perfect, which is in Christ Jesus, who is made unto us righteousness and sanctification [1 Cor 1:30].

IP3:310f (1674): ...by the law of faith all boasting is excluded [Rom 3:27], in the whole work both of justification and sanctification. What is the law of faith? Is not this its law, to fetch all from the Son, to do all in the Son? to quit self, and its own ability, and to perform all in the newness of the Spirit [Rom 7:6], in the ability which is of God, given and continued, in and through his grace and mercy, to the soul in the Lord Jesus Christ? All the veins of life, all the streams of the new covenant run here.

SBD 45: This requires great care and caution, that boasting may be excluded [Rom 3:27], and the honour of his name, whom we preach, be exalted in our ministry, confirming the same by Scripture, and the experience of holy men recorded therein.

(Rom 3:28)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:28: RBA 197 (Rom 3:20)]

GF4:302 (catena on faith, 1661): There is one faith [Eph 4:5] which justifieth [Rom 3:28] and purifeth the heart [Acts 15:9], which is the gift of God [Eph 2:8], which giveth victory [1 Jn 5:4] over all that hath separated man from God, by which faith man hath again access to God [Rom 5:2], and oin which faith he pleases God [Heb 11:6], and in this faith is the unity of the church [Eph 4:13]....

(Rom 3:31)

[Other texts citing Rom 3:31 GF3:325 (Mat 5:17f)]

JN1:512 (1655): ...you would wrest those words of Christ (Mat 5:18): "Not one jot or tittle of the law shall pass away until all be fulfilled," and this you would wrest to make the law void, as though God did not require it to be fulfilled, and you say this was the sole and alone work of Christ; which work of Christ you know not in yourselves, who puts it far from you; for they who witness the work of Christ, they know that he, who did fulfil the law, doth fulfil it in every generation [Mat 24:34?] of saints who believe in him, and so by faith the law is established and not made void [Rom 3:31]....


4:1 What shall we say then that Abraham our father, as pertaining to [G: concerning] the flesh, hath found [BT: did find] ?

4:2 For if Abraham were justified by works [T: deeds] , he hath whereof [GBT: wherein] to glory [GT: rejoice; B: boast] ; but not before [GT: with] God.      qtext

4:3 For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.

[Rom 4:3 cf Gen 15:6 LXX]

4:4 Now to him that worketh is the reward not reckoned [G: the wages is not counted] of grace [GT: favour] , but of debt [BT: duty] .

4:5 But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness.      qtext

4:6 Even as David also describeth [G: declareth] the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth [T: ascribeth] righteousness without works [deeds] ,      qtext

4:7 Saying, [G: to 4:6; BT: omit] Blessed are they whose iniquities [BT: unrighteousness] are forgiven, and whose sins are covered.      qtext

[Rom 4:7f cf Psa 32:1f LXX]

4:8 Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin.


(Rom 4) DGA 89; IP4: 167

(Rom 4:2) WPR 586; WPT 379

(Rom 4:3-5) IP1: 98f

(Rom 4:3) IP4: 67 [cf Gen 15:6 LXX; James 2:23]

(Rom 4:5) GFJN 317; DGA 87; JN1: 508f; JN2: 222; JN3: 6, 118; IP3: 207f; IP4: 167

(Rom 4:6-8) IP1: 99f

(Rom 4:6) JN2: 157

(Rom 4:7) MFU 167

[Rom 4:7f cf Psa 32:1f LXX]


(Rom 4:2)

WPR 586, WPR 379 (1694): [Quakers] rise low, and despised and hated, as the primitive Christians did, and not by the help of worldly wisdom or power, as former reformations in part did: But in all things it may be said, this people were brought forth in the Cross, in a contradiction to the ways, worship, fashion and cusoms of this world; yea, against wind and tide, that so no flesh might glory before God [1 Cor 1:29/Rom 4:2].

(Rom 4:5)

[Other texts citing Rom 4:5: IP4:167 (Rom 4:9)]

JN1:508f (1655): doth that scripture [Rom 4:5] say he justifies the ungodly in his ungodliness? Or him that by faith became obedient as Abraham did [Heb 11:8]? And you that would persuade people that Christ will justify them in their ungodliness count the blood of Christ an unholy thing [Heb 10:29], which is to cleanse people from their sins and not to justify them in their sins: and here I charge you by the blood of Christ to be enemies to the blood of Christ [Phil 3:18]; and here you reason to encourage people in ungodliness.

(Rom 4:6-8)

IP1:99f (1658): ...where the faith which is imputed unto righteousness is found, there "sin is not imputed, but covered"; which is a blessed state, Rom 4:6-8. Sin cuts off from God, who is life and blessedness. Sin lays open to the wrath of the Creator which is too great for the creature to bear [Gen 4:13?]. Woe and misery will be his portion to whom God imputes sin; but happy is he who has his sin covered! This is a happy condition; life and immortality will soon be opened to him [2 Tim 1:10]. Now this blessedness cometh not by the works of the law, for they cannot remove the sin; but by the righteousness of faith, which is able to cover the sin even from the pure eye of God. O Christians, Christians! Do not imagine yourselves covered from sin; but know it, feel it; never rest till ye are so made partakers of the true righteousness, that, by its virtue in you, ye may be past all doubt that it is it.

(Rom 4:7)

MFU 167 (1655): Here thou may take notice how thou goes about to wrest Christ's words [Mat 18:7] as though he would countenance sin, but such a cover will not hide thee in the day of the Lord when he comes to plead with all flesh [Jer 25:31]; and thou brings another scripture where the Apostle saith, blessed is the man whose iniquities are forgiven & sins are covered [Rom 4:7, Psa 32:1]. Answer: Who lives & walks in the new covenant & is guided by the law written in the heart of the spirit that is cut into the inward parts where this teaches & leads & guides, there sins & iniquities are remembered no more [Jer 31:33f]: And they are blessed & David who spoke those words was of the Seed which the blessing is to, but this is nothing to thee, nor none that lives in sin & wickedness.... David walked in the law of God, and kept it....


4:9 Cometh this blessedness then upon the circumcision only [BT: omit] , or upon the uncircumcision also [T: uncircumcised] ? for we say that faith was reckoned to [G: imputed unto] Abraham for righteousness.      qtext

[Rom 4:9 cf Gen 15:6 LXX]

4:10 How was it then reckoned [G: imputed] ? when he was in circumcision [G: circumcised] , or in uncircumcision [G: uncircumcised; B: when he was in the uncircumcision; T: in the time before he was circumcised] ? Not in circumcision [G: when he was circumcised; B: in the circumcision; T: in time of circumcision] , but in uncircumcision [BT: when he was (T: +yet] uncircumcised] .

4:11 And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had yet being [G: when he was] uncircumcised: that he might [GBT: should] be the father of all them that believe, though they be not [G: not being] circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also:      qtext

4:12 And [BT: +that he might be] the father of circumcision [T: the circumcised] to them who are not of the circumcision only [GB: not unto them only which are (B: came) of the circumcision (B: circumcised); T: not because they are circumcised only] , but who also walk [GB: unto them also that walk; T: because they walk also] in the steps of that faith of [BT: that was in] our father Abraham, which he had being yet uncircumcised [G: which he had when he was uncircumcised; BT: before the time of circumcision] .      qtext


(Rom 4:9) IP4: 67, 167 [cf Gal 3:9, Jas 2:23]

(Rom 4:9f) GF5: 262

(Rom 4:11) GF3: 370; JN2: 212; IP1: 314; HPS 359 (EB)

(Rom 4:11f) GF4: 286

(Rom 4:12) GE3: 365; GF5: 251, 252, 295; GF8: 228 [382]


(Rom 4:9)

IP4:167 (1671): Query. In what state was Abraham when faith was imputed to him for righteousness [Rom 4:9G]? Was he in the ungodly state; in the state of unbelief and disobedience to the Spirit and power of the Lord; or was he in the sense of God's power, in the belief of him who could raise up his son from the dead, and in the performance of obedience unto him, giving up his son at the Lord's command [Gen 22:1-18]? And in what state must we be, when we witness faith imputed to us also for righteousness? Must we not be in the sense of the same power, and in the belief of it, and in the obedience of faith [Rom 16:26]? Read Rom 4 and consider: for the righteousness of the gospel is not imputed in or by the works of the law, but in the obedience of faith. It is true, God justifieth the ungodly [Rom 4:5]; through faith he makes them just and godly; but doth he justify or accept them in the ungodly state? Doth he not first make a change in them by his power? Doth he not first in some measure purify their hearts by faith [Acts 15:9]?

(Rom 4:11)

JN2:212 (1655): [continued from Gen 15:13] ...nor do you own that which divides you from this world, being uncircumcised in heart [Acts 7:51], which is to be the seal of Abraham's faith [Rom 4:11]. And so you whose life is in the earth are far off from Abraham's bosom [Luk 16:22], faith and covenant, which is only to his seed, not to the seed of evildooers [Isa 1:4]; not to the seeds which are many, but to one, which is Christ [Gal 3:16]. So in the world, out of Christ: and out of Christ, out of God's covenant; for his promises are all yea and amen to them that are in Christ Jesus [2 Cor 1:20] but not to them that abide in the world.

HPS 359 (Elizabeth Bathurst, 1679): [Quotes Psa 32:1f, Rom 4:11] Whereas [Quakers] believe acceptance with the Father is only in Christ, and by his righteousness made ours, or imputed unto us, by the inward work and applicatory act of God's gift of grace whereby he is made unto the soul, wisdom, righteousness, sanctification and redemption; but because they deny the righteousness of Christ to be imputed where it is not imparted, and distinguished between imagination and imputation—between reckoning or imputing that is real, and reckoning or imputation that is not real, but a fancy—and dare not own the point in the latitude of that sin-pleasing principle to which it is stretched—as if men might be imputatively holy, though not inwardly holy, and imputatively righteous, though not really righteous; therefore they are clamoured upon, as if they denied the imputation of Christ's righteousness, when it is only to those who are not made righteous by it, to walk as he walked [1 Jn 2:5]....

(Rom 4:12)

GF5:251 (1676): Was not Abraham commanded to walk before him, and to be perfect [Gen 17:1], which perfection you cannot attain unto by walking in the oldness of the letter, for you must serve God in the newness of life, and not in the oldness of the letter, Rom 7:6, "for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life." 2 Cor 3:6. And so, was not that faith a sufficient rule for all the old fathers to walk by? And must not we walk in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham? Rom 4:12.


4:13 For the promise, that he should be the heir of the world, was not [G: +given] to Abraham, or to his seed, through the law, but through the righteousness [T: +which cometh] of faith.      qtext

4:14 For if they which are of the law be heirs, faith is made void [GT: then is faith but vain] , and the promise made of none effect:

4:15 Because the law worketh [GBT: causeth] wrath: for where no law is, there is no transgression.      qtext

4:16 Therefore it is of faith [BT: by faith is the inheritance given] , that it might be by grace [GB: come by grace; T: come of favour] ; to the end [GT: and; B: that] the promise might be sure to all the seed; not to that only which is [T: them only which are] of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham; who is the father of us all,      qtext

4:17 (As it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations,) before him whom he believed, even God [GBT: even (B omits) before God whom he (T: thou hast) believed] ; who quickeneth the dead [B: which restoreth the dead unto life] , and calleth those things which be not as though they were.      qtext

[Rom 4:17, cf Gen 17:5 LXX]

4:18 Who [GT: Which Abraham] against [G: above; BT: contrary to] hope believed in [G: under] hope, that he might become [GBT: should be] the father of many nations, according to that which was spoken [G: + to him] , So shall thy seed be.      qtext

[Rom 4:18 cf Gen 15:5]


GF4: 68; GF6: 54

(Rom 4:13) GF3: 308, 525; JN3: 71, 118

(Rom 4:15) MFS 35; IP2: 338; RBA 84; RBAF 71; WPR 330; WPT 185

(Rom 4:16) GF4: 84; GF5: 252; GF7: 65 [49], 102 [98], 260 [239]; GF8: 26 [279], 44 [293], 153 [353], 228 [382], 289 [402]; JN2: 350; IP2: 117, 294; RBA 242; JSS 31

(Rom 4:17) IP3: 209 [cf Gen 17:5 LXX]

(Rom 4:18) GF3: 123; JN3: 72 [cf Gen 15:5]


(Rom 4:13-16)

GF4:68 (1656): And we are of the promise, which is to all the seed, which was not made to him through the law [Rom 4:13], therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace, that the promise might be sure to all the seed; not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us also [Rom 4:16]; and he who was of Abraham is now witnessed, that took upon him the seed, according to the flesh, who was before Abraham was [John 8:58]; a greater than Solomon [Mat 12:42]; him who according to the flesh, is of the seed of Abraham, but according to the Spirit was declared to be the Son of God [Rom 1:3f], the king of glory [Psa 24:7-10].

(Rom 4:13)

JN3:71 (1656): And a profession of faith without righteousness is like a body without life; and like as a living man is known by his actions, so is the living faith by its fruits. And as the man cannot live without action, no more can faith in Christ without righteousness; these are inseparable, therefore it is called the righteousness of faith [Rom 4:13]; where the heart believes unto righteousness, there the mouth confesseth to salvation [Rom 10:10], without hypocrisy or self-righteonsness.

(Rom 4:15)

RBA 92f, RBAF 70f (1678, IV.4): This evil and corrupt seed is not imputed to infants, until they actually join with it .... The apostle saith plainly (Rom 4:15), "Where no law is, there is no transgression." And again (5:13), "But sin is not imputed, where there is no law." Than which testimonies there is nothing more positive; since to infants there is no law, seeing as such they are utterly incapable of it; the law cannot reach any but such as have in some measure less or more the exercise of their understanding, which infants have not.

(Rom 4:16)      "faith of Abraham": cf Rom 4:12.

[Other texts citing Rom 4:16: GF8:26 (John 8:56), RBA 241f (Mat 3:9), JSS 30f (Heb 10:4f)]

GF8:289 (1685): And the Lord said to Abraham, "In thy seed shall all the kindreds (or all the families) of the earth be blessed [Gen 12:3]." And this is the seed that sojourned in a strange land, and they that did evilly entreat this seed, and bring it into bondage, God did judge [Acts 7:6f]. And the promises of God are sure to all the seed (Rom 4:16). And "the children of the promise are counted for the seed; for these are the children of the kingdom (Rom 9:8)."

IP2:294 (1662): When the power appears and works mightily in the soul, there is somewhat apt to get up, to exalt himself by the power, and to abuse the power; and if the power were not withdrawn, and this tormented and famished in the absence of the power, and in the withdrawing of the sweet appearance of life, a wrong thing would be stealing into the inheritance, and the soul would never be thoroughly purified, nor come to a pure enjoyment of the power. Therefore doth the Lord appear in this mysterious way, that the promise might be sure to the seed [Rom 4:16]; that the seed which is the right heir of the power, might come alone to inherit the power, and the false birth not touch the least enjoyment of it, but feel the bitter strokes of death and destruction from it. What had become of Paul, if he had had power to resist the buffetings of the enemy, as he desired? Would not his fleshly part have remained in the exaltation, and not have been brought down? 2 Cor 12:7.

(Rom 4:17)

IP3:208f (1672): He saith further, But this is the bounty, the freeness, the munificence, the riches of the grace of God, to call things that are not as though they were [Rom 4:17]. Ans. Take heed of abusing that scripture. God sent Christ to renew, to redeem, to change, to make holy and righteous, to make people such as the Father might be pleased with, accept, and justfiy; and as Christ maketh them so, the Father receiveth and accepteth them as such. But God doth distinguish and call things as they are. He doth not call an ungodly man a holy man, a justified man; but when he hath changed him, new created him in Christ Jesus, took him out of his old stock, and planted him into the new [Rom 11:17- 24]; then he accounteth and calleth him so, and not before.

(Rom 4:18)

[Other texts citing Rom 4:18: GF3:123 (Rom 5:9)


4:19 And being not weak in [BT: he fainted not in the] faith, he considered not [BT: nor considered] his own body [GT: +which was] now dead, when he was about [GBT: almost] an hundred years old, neither yet the deadness of Sara's womb [T: that Sara was past childbearing] :

4:20 He staggered not at [G: Neither did he doubt of] the promise of God through unbelief; but was strong in faith, giving glory [T: and gave honour] to God;      qtext

4:21 And being fully persuaded [G: fully assured; BT: full certified] that, what he had promised, he [G: he which had promised] was able also to perform [G: do it; T: make good] .      qtext

4:22 And therefore it was imputed [BT: reckoned] to him for righteousness.

4:23 Now it was not written for his sake alone [GBT: him only], that it was imputed [BT: reckoned] to him [GT: +for righteousness];      qtext

4:24 But for us also, to whom it shall be imputed [B: reckoned; T: counted; GT: +for righteousness] , if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead [T: death] ;

4:25 Who was delivered [G: +to death] for our offences [GBT: sins] , and was raised [G: is risen; T: rose] again for our justification [T: for to justify us] .      qtext


(Rom 4:20) TEM 95

(Rom 4:21) GF7: 196 [200]; GF8: 201 [371], 219 [380]; JN3: 106

(Rom 4:22) GF3: 109; IP4: 67 [cf Rom 4:9]

(Rom 4:23f) IP4: 217

(Rom 4:24) IP3: 206

(Rom 4:25) GF5: 94; GF8: 164 [357], 203 [372]; JN1: 191; JN3: 120


(Rom 4:20)

TEM 95: I was at the brink of want, next door to nothing, yet my confidence did not fail nor my faith stagger [Rom 4:20]....

(Rom 4:21)

GF8:219 (1682): And now, dear friends and brethren, in all your words, in all your business and employments, have a care of breaking your words and promises to any people; but that you may, (before you make any promises to any man or woman,) consider before hand, that you may be able to perform and fulfil both your words and promises [Rom 4:21] to all people, that you make your promises, or give your word unto. And that your yea be yea, and nay, nay, in all things, which Christ hath set up instead of an oath [Mat 5:33-37]; yea, above an oath and swearing, in his new covenant and testament.

(Rom 4:23f)

IP4:217 (1671): The scripture saith, that Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness; and that so it shall be also to all that believe as he did, even in the same power which he believed in. (Rom 4:23f) Now, thus we witness the thing: our minds being turned from sin, and turned to the pure gift of God, that works a change in us. Herein we feel faith spring up, which fastens our spirits to the power of life; and then we feel that ... flow upon our spirits which washeth away our sin.... And this is our righteousness, even Christ the holy power of life, who condemns and casts out sin: and it is great joy to any of us to feel the root of sin struck at and condemned by his power, and him casting sin out of us, the root of righteousness growing up in us, and bearing us, and causing us to bring forth fruit to God.

(Rom 4:25)

GF8:203 (1681): Now Christ Jesus, the second Adam, the Lord from heaven [1 Cor 15:47], it is he who rules, and reigns, and governs in the hearts of his saints, who are the believers in his light, (the life in him,) who is their governor and counsellor [Isa 9:6], who died for their sins [1 Cor 15:3], and is risen for their justification [Rom 4:25], and is the captain of salvation [Heb 2:10].


5:1 Therefore being justified by faith, we have [BT: are at] peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:      qtext

5:2 By whom also we have access by [B: had an entrance by; T: a way in through] faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in [G: under the] hope of the glory [T: praise that shall be given] of God.      qtext


(Rom 5) JN3: 212

(Rom 5:1) GF3: 88, 526; GF4: 289; GF7: 203 [206], 244 [230]; GF8: 43 [292], 72 [313]; WPT 73

(Rom 5:1f) GF5: 94

(Rom 5:2) GFJN 28, 57, 318, 529; GF3: 37, 75, 98, 116, 156, 444; GF4: 286, 302; GF6: 14, 177; GF7: 106 [104], 136 [142], 160 [171], 203 [206], 221 [218], 224 [221], 231 [222], 237 [223], 253 [233], 276 [245], 310 [259]; GF8: 56 [306], 68 [313], 124 [333], 133, 134 [342], 142 [344], 143 [345], 163 [356], 179 [361], 216 [377], 218 [378], 228 [382]; IP3: 294, 309, 324, 413


(Rom 5:1)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:1: GF4:289 (Heb 11:7)]

GF8:43 (1672): And Christ, the second Adam, the Lord from heaven [1 Cor 15:47], saves men from sin; who is the prince of peace [Isa 9:6], and of life [Acts 3:15], and the covenant of God, who brings men to have peace with God [Rom 5:1], and one with another [Mark 9:50], who destroys the devil [Heb 2:14], the author of strife: this is Christ the second Adam, which brings the sons and daughters of Adam into reconciliation with God again, and destroys sin, and finishes it, and makes reconciliation for sin and iniquity [Dan 9:24].

(Rom 5:2)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:2: GF4: 302 (Rom 3:28), GF7:203 , GF8:179 (both 1 Jn 5:4), GF8:134 (John 5:24), GF8:218 (Heb 10:38)]

faith gives access to God: GF uses in catenae on faith (associated with 1 Jn 5:4, Heb 11:6, Acts 15:9, etc.)

GF7:221 (1662): Let patience possess your souls [Luk 21:19], ... and in the power of the Lord keep your meetings, which was before the waves were, or winds either. So in that look over all, and keep in the faith, by which ye will have access to God [Rom 5:2] over that which separates from God; in that ye will have unity, and will not fear the amazements [1 Pet 3:6] which are in the sea, because of the winds, and storms, and blusterings, who know the election which was before the world began.

IP3:324 (1674): Ah, how miserably do men talk of Christ, the power of God [1 Cor 1:24], and miss of the effect and work of his power in them! Faith is a powerful thing, ...true faith gives victory [1 Jn 5:4], it scatters that which stands between, and gives real access to God [Rom 5:2], and lets in his pure, fresh, living virtue, upon the heart. Love is a powerful thing, it constrains to obedience: and the heart that is circumcised to love the Lord God [Deut 30:6], Oh! how doth life flow from him into it! Oh! away with empty notions, and come to the ministration of the Spirit [2 Cor 3:8], where the knowledge is living, the faith victorious, the love pure and undefiled, the worship truly spiritual, even flowing from, and comprehended in, the life and virtue of the Spirit.


5:3 And not only so, but we glory [GBT: rejoice] in tribulations also: knowing that tribulation worketh [G: bringeth forth; T: bringeth] patience;      qtext

5:4 And patience, experience [B: proof (2x)] ; and experience, hope:

5:5 And hope maketh not ashamed; because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us.      qtext

5:6 For when we were yet without strength [G: of no strength; BT: weak] , in due time Christ died for the [T: us which were] ungodly.      qtext


(Rom 5:3-5) WPR 640

(Rom 5:5) GF4: 128, 252; GF7: 30 [23], 67 [51], 86 [77], 142 [149], 147 [155],244 [230]; GF8: 63 [311], 152 [352], 162 [356], 204 [372], 212 [375]; MFS 24; MFU 422;JN2: 9; JN3: 72, 73, 74f; WDS 301; IP3: 165, 299, 328, 344, 372

(Rom 5:5f) GF5: 94

(Rom 5:6) GFJN 317; GF4: 320; GF5: 220, 420; GF6: 67; GF8: 182 [361]; DGA 87; WPR 614; WPT 283


(Rom 5:3-5)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:3-5: WPR 640 (Jas 1:4)]

(Rom 5:5)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:5: GF7:142 (1 Jn 4:16), GF8:152 (1 Jn 4:18), MFS 24 (Heb 6:19), MFU 422 (Rom 8:39), WDS 301 (John 3:14), IP3:344 (Heb 6:19), IP3:372 (1 Jn 4:11)]

IP3:299 (1674): Quest. What is the true hope? Ans. The stay of the mind upon the Lord [Isa 26:3], the stay of the heavenly birth upon its; Father: for we must distinguish between hope and hope. There is the hope of the hypocrite, or false birth, which shall perish [Job 8:13]; and the hope of the true birth, which will never fail it, nor make it ashamed [Rom 5:5]; because that birth is taught of God to hope aright....

(Rom 5:6)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:6: GF4:319f (John 3:16), GF5:220 (Rom 5:10), GF8:182 (Heb 12:3)]

GF5:420 (1679): And the apostle saith, "if the casting away of the Jews be the reconciling of the world, what shall receiving of them be, but life from the dead [Rom 11:15]." He that hath an ear to hear, let him hear [Mat 11:15/Rev 2:7 refrain]. And again, doth not the apostle say, "in due time Christ died for the ungodly [Rom 5:6]"? So he did not die for the saints only. And again, doth not the apostle say, "when we were sinners, Christ died for us [Rom 5:8]"? And so it is clear, Christ did not die for the elect only.


5:7 For [G: Doubtless; B: Now; T: Yet] scarcely for a righteous man [B: the righteous] will one [BT: any man] die: yet peradventure [G: it may be that] for a good man some would even dare to [B: some men durst; T: durst a man] die.

5:8 But God commendeth [GBT: setteth out] his love toward [GBT: that he hath to] us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.      qtext

5:9 Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him.      qtext

5:10 For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved [T: preserved] by his life.      qtext

5:11 And not only so, but we also joy [G: rejoice] in God through [T: by the means of] our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement.


(Rom 5:7-11) GF5: 94

(Rom 5:8) GF5: 420; GF7: 144 [153]; GF8: 182 [361]

(Rom 5:9) GF3: 123; GF7: 133 [138]; GF8: 135 [342]; DGA 130; JN3: 117; WPR 505n

(Rom 5:10) GF5: 110, 220; IP3: 462; RBA 173, 191; RBAF 131, 145; WPR 465


(Rom 5:8)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:8: GF5: 420 (Rom 5:6) GF8:182 (Heb 12:3)]

(Rom 5:9)

[Other texts citing GF7:133: (Rev 1:5)]

GF3:123 (1659): Such as are saved from the wrath by Christ the head, and his blood [Rom 5:9], they are saved from thieir sins. And then they that are saved from their sins, how can conscience condemn, and the wrath come upon them for sin.... But where conscience doth condemn for sin, there is wrath; and such cannot witness a cleansing, nor salvation wrought out [Phil 2:12], nor a being saved from sin, but are in the false hope, and not in the true hope which goes against hope [Rom 4:18], for the true hope is Christ within.

(Rom 5:10)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:10: WPR 465 (Mat 5:3-12)]

GF5:220 (1676): "For (when we were yet without strength,) in due time Christ died for the ungodly [Rom 5:6]; for when we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son." (Rom 5:10) And therefore people should die with Christ to sin, and have their old man crucified with him, that their old man might be destroyed; that henceforth they should not serve sin [Rom 6:6], and remain enemies.

RBA 191, RBAF 145 (1678, VII.8): ...the immediate, nearest, or formal cause ... of a man's justification in the sight of God is the revelation of Jesus Christ in the soul, changing, altering, and renewing the mind [Rom 12:2].... And this is that order and method of salvation held forth by the apostle ... (Rom 5:10): "For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life." For the apostle first holding forth the reconciliation wrought by the death of Christ, wherein God is near to receive and redeem man, holds forth his salvation and justification to be by the life of Jesus. Now that this life is an inward spiritual thing revealed in the soul whereby it is renewed and brought forth out of death, where it naturally has been by the fall; and so quickened and made alive unto God, the same apostle shows [quotes Eph 2:5].


5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon [GT: went over; B: entered into] all men, for that all have [G: in who all men have; B: insomuch as all have; T: insomuch that all men] sinned:      qtext

5:13 (For until [GT: unto the time of] the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed [T: was not regarded] when [G: while; T: as long as] there is [T: was] no law.      qtext

5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression [G: after the like manner of that transgression of Adam; BT: with like transgression as did Adam] , who is [G: was] the figure [T: similitude] of him that was to come.      qtext


(Rom 5:12-14) GF4: 32; MFU 58, 114; HPS 362 (EB)

(Rom 5:12) GFJN 13; GF3: 244; GF5: 389, 413; GF6: 404; GF7: 59 [46]; GF8: 236 [388]; MFU 63; JN1: 161; JN2: 16, 175; RBA 84, 94, 95; RBAF 5(66)

(Rom 5:13) RBA 93; WPR 228; WPT 34

(Rom 5:14) GFJN 31, 113; GF3: 15 (EB), 553; GF4: 31, 169, 366; GF7: 38 [32]; GF8: 94 [320]; JN2: 287; JN3: 55, 116n

(Rom 5:14f) GF5: 313


(Rom 5:12-14)

MFU 58 (1654): So in love to thy soul, which lives in the death which hath passed over all men [Rom 5:12], which reigns from Adam till Moses [Rom 5:14]; the light which Christ Jesus hath enlightened thee with [John 1:9] will let thee see, if thou turn thy mind within to it, that thou art yet in Egypt, & utter darkness [Exo 10:21], and Moses which is sent of God [Exo 3:13-15] to bring the seed out of the house of darkness & bondage, thou didst yet never know, nor never shall, so long as thou follows the way thou art in.

HPS 362 (Elizabeth Bathurst, 1679): But though it be granted, that by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed over all men, for all have sinned [Rom 5:12], even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression [Rom 5:14], who is the figure of him that was to come; yet this doth not prove the Lord to be so partial in his love towards his creatures, as to choose some, but leave the greatest part of mankind in the fallen state, without affording them any benefit by Christ, or a measure of his grace and spirit; for want of which, and being so passed by of God (as some have asserted), they become under a necessity of sinning, and a necessity of dying: Oh, harsh doctrine!

(Rom 5:12)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:12: RBA 84 (Rom 5:15)]

GFJN 13 ([1647]): At another time I saw the great love of God, and was filled with admiration at the infiniteness of it. I saw what was cast out from God, and what entered into God's kingdom; and how by Jesus, the opener of the door by his heavenly key [Rev 3:7], the entrance was given. I saw death, how it had passed upon all men [Rom 5:12], and oppressed the seed of God in man, and in me; and how I in the seed came forth, and what the promise was to [Gal 4:19, 29]. Yet it was so, that there seemed to be two pleading in me; and questionings arose in my mind about gifts and prophecies, and I was tempted again to despair, as if I had sinned against the holy ghost [Mat 12:31]. I was in great perplexity and trouble for many days; yet I gave up myself to the Lord still.

GF5:389 (1679): by the offence of Adam and Eve, did not sin and condemnation enter into the world, and judgment come upon all men, for that all had sinned [Rom 5:12]? And so by the righteousness of Christ the free gift came upon all men to justification of life [Rom 5:18]; and then, where is the foreordination of persons to condemnation, seeing all were in condemnation? .... is not the condemnation and the judgment come, for not receiving Christ, and believing in him? And did not the first condemnation come upon Adam and Eve for not believing, and disobeying God?

JN1:161 (1653): The death which hath passed over all men [Rom 5:12] is but one, and Christ Jesus took upon him not the nature of angels but the seed of Abraham [Heb 2:16], which the death hath passed over [Exo 12:23]. Now thou that hast not the same Spirit that raised up Jesus Christ from the death [Rom 8:11] is none of his [Rom 8:9], and all the promises is to the seed, which seed is but one, which is Christ in you [Gal 3:16/Col 1:27]. Who are of faith are of Abraham [Gal 3:7], called out of the heathenish nature and worships, and out of their native country, as Abraham was [Heb 11:8], and are of Abraham; and thousands do witness it: one faith, one seed.

(Rom 5:13)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:13: RBA 93 (Rom 4:15)]

WPR 228, WPT 34 (1668): [refuting doctrine (p 224) "that there is no other way for sinners to be justified in the sight of God, than by the imputation of that righteousness Christ long since performed personally"] 6. But sin is not imputed where there is no law [Rom 5:13]. From whence it is apparent that there could be no imputation or charging of guilt upon any but such as really were guilty. Next it is used about remission: Blessed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity, or as the foregoing would have it, whose transgression is forgiven [Psa 32:1f]. Where the non- imputation doth not argue a non-reality of sin, but the reality of God's pardon; for otherwise there would be nothing to forgive, nor yet a real pardon, but only imputative, which according to the sense of this doctrine I call imaginary.

(Rom 5:14)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:14: GF3:14f (Mat 21:19)]

GFJN 31 ([1648]): I saw also how people read the scriptures without a right sense of them, and without duly applying them to their own states. For when they read, that death reigned from Adam to Moses [Rom 5:14]; that the law and the prophets were until John [Mat 11:13]; and that the least in the kingdom is greater than John [Mat 11:11]; they read these things without them, and applied them to others, (and the things were true of others,) but they did not turn in to find the truth of these things in themselves. As these things were opened in me, I saw death reigned over them from Adam to Moses [Rom 5:14]; from the entrance into transgression, till they came to the ministration of condemnation [2 Cor 3:9], which restrains people from sin that brings death. When the ministration of Moses is passed through, the ministry of the prophets comes to be read and understood, which reaches through the figures, types, and shadows unto John, the greatest prophet born of a woman [Mat 11:11]; whose ministration prepares the way of the Lord, by bringing down the exalted mountains, and making straight paths [Isa 40:3f, Luk 3:4f]. As this ministration is passed through, an entrance comes to be known into the everlasting kingdom [2 Pet 2:11].

JN2:287 (1655): there is a time when the fire is in the bush, and the bush unconsumed [Exo 3:2]; then is the seed of God in Egypt under Pharaoh and the magicians, and in that state death reigns from Adam till Moses [Rom 5:14]. Also there is a time when the light of Israel doth burn up the bush and devour the briars and thorns in one day [Isa 10:17], then is that God known who is a consuming fire [Deut 4:24] to all that chokes his seed [Mat 13:22]: go learn what this means, then shalt thou see whereof thou art glorying; and under that glory a fire shall be kindled [Isa 10:16]. Who would set briars and thorns against me in battle, I will go through them and burn them together [Isa 27:4].


5:15 But not as the offence, so also is the free gift [G: But yet the gift is not so, as is the offence; B: But not as the sin, so is the gift; T: But the gift is not like as the sin] . For if through the offence [BT: sin] of one many be dead, much more [T: + plenteous upon many was] the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is [T: grace was given] by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many [T omits] .      qtext

5:16 And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift [G: Neither is the gift so, as that which entered in by one that sinned; T: And the gift is not over one sin as death came through one sin of one that sinned] : for the judgment was by one to [G: fault came of one offence unto; T: damnation came of one sin unto] condemnation, but the free [GBT: omit] gift is of many offences unto justification [B: of many sins ....; T: came to justify from many sins] .

5:17 For if by one man's offence [GBT: the offence (BT: sin) of one] death reigned by [G: through (2x); BT: by the means of (2x)] one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.)      qtext

5:18 Therefore [GBT: Likewise then] as by the offence [BT: sin] of one judgment [G: the fault; B: sin: T: condemnation] came upon all men to condemnation [T omits] ; even so by the righteousness [GT: justifying] of one the free gift came upon [G: the benefit abounded toward; B: good came upon] all men unto justification [B: righteousness] of life [T: cometh the righteounsness that bringeth life upon all men] .      qtext

5:19 For as by one man's disobedience many were made [BT: became] sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.      qtext

5:20 Moreover the law entered [G: +thereupon; BT: But the law in the meantime entered in] , that the offence might abound [BT: sin should increase] . But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound [B: But where sin was plenteous, grace was more plenteous; T: Neverthelater where abundance of sin was, there was more plenteousness of grace] :

5:21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through [G: by] righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord [T: by the help of Jesus Christ] .


(Rom 5:15-17) JN3: 399

(Rom 5:15) IP3: 364; RBA 84; RBAF 5(66); EQ 319, 323 (BC)

(Rom 5:16-18) RBAF 71n

(Rom 5:17) GF7: 39 [33]; JN2: 80

(Rom 5:18) GF5: 389, 413; GF6: 267, 381; IP4: 95; RBA 157; RBAF 113; EQ 323 (BC); HPS 363 (EB)

(Rom 5:18f) GF6: 97; GF8: 302 [410]; JN3: 209; IP4: 103; RBA 123, RBAF 88

(Rom 5:19) MFS 32; MFU 114, 204; JN3: 88; IP3: 42

(Rom 5:20) IP2: 49, 50


(Rom 5:15)

RBA 84f, RBAF 5,66 (1678, IV): THE FOURTH PROPOSITION. Concerning the Condition of Man in the Fall. All Adam's posterity (or mankind), both Jews and Gentiles, as to the first Adam (or earthly man [1 Cor 15:45,47]), is fallen, degenerated, and dead; deprived of the sensation (or feeling) of this inward testimony or seed of God [margin: Rom 5:12,15]; and is subject unto the power, nature, and seed of the serpent [Gen 3:15], which he soweth in men's hearts, while they abide in this natural and corrupted estate: from whence it comes that not only their words and deeds but all their imaginations are evil perpetually in the sight of God [Gen 6:5, 8:21], as proceeding from this depraved and wicked seed. Man therefore, as he is in this state, can know nothing aright; yea his thoughts and conceptions concerning God and things spiritual, until he be disjoined from this evil seed and united to the Divine Light, are unprofitable both to himself and others.

(Rom 5:17)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:17: JN2:80 (Rom 3:22) ]

(Rom 5:18)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:18: GF5:389 (Rom 5:12)]

IP4:95 (1671): Now, as concerning election itself, observe this; that it is in Christ, and not out of him. For it was the intent of God to honor his Son, even as his Son honored him: and this was the honor which God gave him, "That he should be his salvation to the ends of the earth [Acts 13:47]; that whosoever believed on him, should not perish, but have everlasting life [John 3:16]." That he should be the way for all mankind to come to the Father, through faith in him; that as in Adam all died, so in Christ all might be made alive [1 Cor 15:22]; and as in Adam all men were shut up in death and condemnation, so the free gift might come upon all [Rom 5:18], and the way of life and redemption be opened to all, in him.

HPS 363 (Elizabeth Bathurst, 1679): [continued from John 3:16]: Yet hath the Lord no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that the wicked turn from his way and live [Ezek 33:11]. Wherefore, he hath given the beloved of his soul [Jer 12:7] out of his bosom, to come into the world to save men from their sins [1 Tim 1:15], that they might be made accepted in him [Eph 1:6]: Therefore as by the offence of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life (Rom 5:18), which makes it clear to me, the Lord will not condemn any for Adam's sin, who have not demerited his wrath by actual transgression.

(Rom 5:18f)

[Other texts citing Rom 5:18f: GF8:302 (John 3:36)]

RBA 123, RBAF 88 (1678, V/VI.15): ... it is "by the obedience of that one that the free gift is come upon all to justification [Rom 5:18f]," for we affirm, that as all men partake of the fruit of Adam's fall, in that, by reason of that evil seed, which through him is communicated unto them, they are prone and inclined unto evil, though thousands of thousands be ignorant of Adam's fall, neither ever knew of the eating of the forbidden fruit; so also many may come to feel the influence of this holy and divine Seed, and Light, and be turned from evil to good by it, though they knew nothing of Christ's coming in the flesh, through whose obedience and sufferings it is purchased unto them.

(Rom 5:19)

MFS 31f (1660): Glory and honor be unto His holy name forever, who has sent His only begotten son [1 Jn 4:9] in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh [Rom 8:3]. As by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by obedience of One shall many be made righteous [Rom 5:19]. This the disobedient will never know, who turn from and disobey the Holy One that should make them righteous.

This page last revised Oct 2007