1:1 James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, [T: sendeth greeting] to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad [T: here and there], greeting [G: salutation; T omits].

1:2 My brethren, count it all [GT: exceeding] joy when ye fall into divers temptations;     qtext

1:3 Knowing this, [G: Knowing; T: for as much as ye know how] that the trying of your faith worketh [G: bringeth forth; T: bringeth] patience.     qtext

1:4 But let patience have her perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire [BT: sound], wanting [GBT: lacking] nothing.     qtext

(Jas) GF5: 119f

(Jas 1:2) GF4: 325; JN1: 52; IP2: 201

(Jas 1:3f) GF4: 288; IP3: 523

(Jas 1:4) GF3: 538; GF6: 440; GF7: 216 [215]; GF8: 143 [346]; MFU 228; EQ 287 (FN); JN1: 192; JN2: 184; JN3: 534 (FH&EB); WDS 309; IP3: 133, 231; IP4: 344; HPS 377 (EB); WPR 502, 640; SIW 135


(Jas 1:2)

IP2:201 (1661): ...standing in the life, and in the power which had quickened them, and was present with them, they could "count it all joy when they fell into manifold temptations," [Jas 1:2] knowing the advantage which would accrue to them thereby, and possessing their souls in pure patience [Luke 21:19], until God wrought it out for them.

(Jas 1:3f)

IP3:523 (1677): Prize inward exercises, griefs, and troubles, and let faith and patience have their perfect work in them. [Jas 1:3f]

(Jas 1:4)

[Jas 1:4 often cited in support of perfection]

[Other texts citing Jas 1:4: GF7:216 (under Heb 13:9), IP3:133 (Heb 6:10)]

GF3:538 (1659): Christ said, be perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect [Mat 5:48]. He knew that they might be perfect if they came into the kingdom of God, for there no imperfect thing must enter [Rev 21:27].... What is this to thee who cannot love enemies [Mat 5:44]? for they that love enemies, shall know perfection, and perfect love and patience have their perfect work [Jas 1:4].

WDS 309 (1682): ... what exercise soever is met with, whilst you are in the mortal body, pray to the Lord to keep you in the life of his own Spirit, that patience may have its perfect work [Jas 1:4]; that if you be smitten on the one cheek, turn the other cheek to the smiter also [Mat 5:39]; and if you be reviled, revile not again [1 Pet 2:23], but in deep humility and patience, wait in the pure, meek, peaceable Spirit of our Lord Jesus, who was made perfect through sufferings [Heb 2:10]....

IP4:344 (1671?): The true patience, which obtains the crown [Zech 6:14 LXX], which makes perfect and entire, so that there is nothing wanting [Jas 1:4], the patience which enables quietly to suffer any chastisement from God, or any affliction, or hard dealing from men, is contained in and given with this seed.

HPS 377 (Elizabeth Bathurst, 1679): [cites various texts on perfection] And this was it the Apostle James desired (viz. that those to whom he wrote might be perfect and entire, lacking nothing), Jas 1:4.

WPR 640 (1699/1726): ...without [patience] there is no running the Christian race [Heb 12:1], or obtaining the heavenly crown; without it there can be no experience of the work of God, Rom 5:3-5. For patience worketh (saith the apostle) experience; nor hope of eternal recompense, for experience worketh that hope [Rom 5:4]. Therefore, says James, Let patience have its perfect work [Jas 1:4].

SIW 135 (Mary Alexander, 17--): for want of "letting patience have her perfect work" [Jas 1:4] I have oft-times increased my trials and exercises, I believe beyond what might have been designed for me to endure for the work’s sake.


1:5 If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally [BT: indifferently], and upbraideth not [G: reproacheth no man; BT: casteth no man in the teeth]; and it shall be given him.     qtext

1:6 But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering [GT: and waver not]. For he that wavereth [T: doubteth] is like a wave of the sea driven with [GBT: tossed of] the wind and tossed [G: carried away; BT: carried with violence].     qtext

1:7 For let not [GBT: Neither let] that man think that he shall receive any thing of the Lord.

1:8 A double [T: wavering] minded man is unstable in all his ways.     qtext

(Jas 1:5) GF5: 53, 119; GF6: 363; GF7: 54 [44]; GF8: 118 [321]; JN2: 203; JN3: 702n (RR)

(Jas 1:5f) IP4: 117

(Jas 1:6) GF7: 86 [76]; JN1: 229, 318; WTG 79 (SM)

(Jas 1:6f) GF7: 141 [148]

(Jas 1:8) WPR 151


(Jas 1:5)

[Other texts citing Jas 1:5: JN2:203 (Mat 19:27)]

GF7:54 (1653): Pure wisdom [Jas 3:17] is let out of the treasury into the pure heart, which sees God [Mat 5:8]; and fearing the living God, it keeps the heart pure and clean, to receive the wisdom from the treasury freely, who doth not upbraid. [Jas 1:5]

GF8:118 (1676): God giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not [Jas 1:5]. So all men should give of that which they have received of him, liberally, without upbraiding, as in Jas i. 5.

(Jas 1:5f)

IP4:117 (1671): So if any want wisdom, let him ask in faith [Jas 1:5f]: it is presently given from the Spirit of wisdom [Isa 11:2], which is poured out upon the seed....

(Jas 1:6)

[Other texts citing Jas 1:6: JN1:228f (John 14:13f)]

GF7:86 (1654): O all Friends! in the unchangeable life and power, and seed of God live, and be out of the low, earthly, changeable spirit of the world [1 Cor 2:12], which is given to changing and tossing, and tempest and waves [Jas1:6], by which dirt is cast up [Isa 57:20].

GF7:141 (1657): So, pray in the spirit [Eph 6:18] and in the faith, nothing wavering [Jas 1:6] nor doubting [1 Tim 2:8]....and the spirit will give you an understanding [Job 32:8], and a distinction of the state of "asking, and not receiving [Jas 4:3], and of seeking, and not finding [Mat 7:7], and the praying in the wavering and in the doubting," which is not in the spirit of God. But such ask in that nature which doubts, and would consume it on their lusts [Jas 4:3]. So, ask in faith, that gives the victory over the wavering, doubting nature [Jas 1:6/1 Jn 5:4].

WTG 79 (Susanna Morris, 1745): ...he will carry on his work in them according to his own divine will and heavenly pleasure [Phil 2:13] as they abide steadfast in faith, not wavering, for those that waver are like unstable waters of the troubled sea that cast up mire and dirt [Jas 1:6/Isa 57:20].

(Jas 1:8)

WPR 151 (1678): But woe to the hypocrite in that day, the formalist, the Jew outward, the circumcision of the flesh [Rom 2:28] and fleshly Christian, that cannot resist the temptations of this world, the temporizer, the one that runs with the tide; he will be divided. For there will be more tides, more interests on foot at once than one; wherefore perplexity will take hold on him ..; this double- minded man will be unstable in his counsels and in his actions [Jas 1:8], his sandy foundation will be shaken [Mat 7:26f].


1:9 Let the brother of low degree rejoice in that he is exalted:      qtext

1:10 But the rich, in that he is made low: because [G: for; T: for even] as the flower of the grass he shall pass [GT: shall he vanish] away.     qtext

1:11 For the sun is no sooner risen [GT: riseth] with a burning [GBT: omit] heat, but it withereth the grass [GBT: the the grass withereth] , and the flower thereof falleth [GBT: +away], and the grace of the fashion [G: goodly shape; BT: beauty of the fashion] of it perisheth: so also shall the rich man fade away [G: wither away; T: perish] in his ways [G: in all his ways; T: with his abundance].

(Jas 1:9f) RBA 434

(Jas 1:11) IP1: 408

(Jas 1:9f)

RBA 434 (XV.2, 1678): Let the brother of high degree rejoice in that he is abased [Jas 1:10], and such as God calls in a low degree to be content with their condition, not envying those brethren who have greater abundance, knowing they have received abundance as to the inward man, which is chiefly to be regarded.... they have this advantage beyond the rich and noble that are called, that the Truth doth not any ways abase them, nay not in the esteem of the world, as it doth the other, but that they are rather exalted thereby in that as to the inward and spiritual fellowship of the saints they become the brethren and companions of the greatest and richest, and in this respect, "let him that is of low degree rejoice that he is exalted" (Jas 1:9).


1:12 Blessed [T: Happy] is the man that endureth [T: +in] temptation: for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him.     qtext

[cf Rev 2:10]

1:13 Let no man say when he is tempted, I am [T: that he is] tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted with [T: temptheth not unto] evil, neither tempteth he any man:

1:14 But every man is tempted, when he is [T: omits] drawn away of his own lust, and enticed [G: by his own concupiscence, and is enticed; BT: and enticed of his own concupiscence].

1:15 Then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin: and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death.     qtext

1:16 Do not err [GT: Err not], my beloved [GBT: dear] brethren.

(Jas 1:12) GF7: 155 [166]; GF8: 30 [279], 34 [284], 58 [307], 130 [339]; IP2: 340

(Jas 1:14f) GF6: 438

(Jas 1:15) GF8: 307 [416]; GFEJ 469; IP3: 184; IP4: 253, 394


(Jas 1:12)

GF8:34 (1671): And so be valiant for the truth upon the earth [Jer 9:3], in the seed Christ Jesus, that through him who destroys death [1 Cor 15:26, Heb 2:14], you may have a crown of life [Jas 1:12/Rev 2:10]; and through him you may be one another's crown and joy [Phil 4:1] in the Lord

GF8:58 (1674): The Lord may try you by persecution, or spoiling your outward goods which he has given you, by permitting the spoilers and persecutors come to try you, that you may come forth like gold seven times tried in the fire [Job 23:10/Psa 12:6], (the perfection of trial,) for many are the troubles of the righteous, but the Lord will deliver out of them all [Psa 34:19]; and happy are they that are tried [Jas 1:12?], that they may come forth more pure than gold [1 Pet 1:7].

(Jas 1:15)

IP4: 394 (1679): And this Word is so powerful against sin, that it doth not only cut it off, and wash it away from the mind and conscience, and so make them clean, but it also keeps the mind, in which it remains, as it is regarded and hearkened to, from joining to sin any more; and if sin cannot be joined to, it can neither be conceived nor brought forth [Jas 1:15].


1:17 Every good gift [GB: giving] and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights [T: light], with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning [T: is he changed into darkness].     qtext

1:18 Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth [T: life], that we should be a kind of [G: as the; BT: the] firstfruits of his creatures.     qtext

(Jas 1:17) GF3: 202, 277, 315, 338, 505, 510, 525; GF4: 157; GF5: 119; GF7: 58 [46], 67 [52], 74 [61], 86 [77], 92 [81], 97 [90], 198 [201], 233 [222], 250 [232], 269 [240], 295 [249]; GFEJ 46; LB (G21); MFS 90; MFU 18, 21, 51, 53, 106, 228, 277, 319; JN1: 193, 238, 296, 317; JN2: 154, 184, 203; JN3: 48, 388, 454; WDS 300, 305; IPL 55; IP1: 124, 127, 214, 422; IP2: 5, 116, 286; IP3: 253, 426; EQ EQ 174; 280 (FN); HPS 397, 399 (EB); 453, 455 (MF), 464, 515; WPR 307, 365, 583, 611; WPT 141, 274f; JWJM 73; WTG 69 (SM); SIW 71

(Jas 1:17f) IP2: 6

(Jas 1:18) GF5: 119; GF6: 389; JN1: 50; JN3: 725 (RR); WDS 164; HPS 369 (EB); WPR 129


(Jas 1:17)

[Other texts citing Jas 1:17: GF3:510 (John 8:35), IP2:116 (1 Pet 2:22), HPS 397 (John 12:46), WPR 307 (Luk 19:20), WPR 365 (Rev 2:4), WTG 69 (1 Pet 4:12)]

GF3:525 (1659): Faith is the gift of God [Eph 2:8], and the gift of God is perfect [Jas 1:17], and that which is perfect is without sin, and gives victory over sin [1 Jn 5:4].

GF7:74 (1654): [the] seed endeth all types, figures, shadows, and variable things [Heb 8-10/Jas 1:17].

GF7:198 (1661): In the stillness and silence of the power of the Almighty dwell, which never varies, alters, nor changes [Jas 1:17]....

GF7:295 (1667): in Christ is no shadow, variableness, nor turning [Jas 1:17], for he was before shadows were, glorified with the Father before the world began [John 17:5]....

JN2:184 (1655): Thou makes it appear that thou never knew the good & perfect gift that comes from above [Jas 1:17]; thou runs too greedly after gifts and rewards [Jude 1:11] from below.

IP2:5 (1660): All the knowledge which man gathers, or can gather, into his vessel, he may pollute; but what issues from the spring is pure, and of a perfect nature. Jas 1:17.

HPS 399 (Elizabeth Bathurst, 1679): Yet do I believe ... that the Father of lights [Jas 1:17], and God of the spirits of all flesh [Num 11:22], hath given a measure of his own divine Light and Spirit unto all the children of men....

WPR 611, WPT 274f (1696): God the Father of Lights and Spirits [Jas 1:17/Heb 12:9]

JWJM 73 (17–): To provide things relative to our outward living in the way of true wisdom is good, and the gift of improving in things useful is a good gift and comes from the Father of Lights [Jas 1:17].

SIW 71 (Catherine Payton Phillips, 1749): ...the excellency is of him; from whom proceeds wisdom, power, light, utterance, peace and every good gift [Jas 1:17].

(Jas 1:18)

GF5:119 (1675): "Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth [Jas 1:18];" not with the letter, that killeth, but the spirit that giveth life [2 Cor 6:3]; "that we should be as the firstfruits of his creatures [Jas 1:18G]."

WPR 129 (1673?): O did the nations know how to live in that blessed harmless life, how would it end all contests and difference; well, we are the first fruits [Jas 1:18], let us retire into our chambers, the inward of our spirits, and there we shall feel that which supports, comforts, and gives and prevails [?], for the end of these things that threaten the world that it may be brought into a condition of hearing and receiving the Truth in the love of it....


1:19 Wherefore, my beloved [GBT: dear] brethren, let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath:     qtext

1:20 For the wrath of man worketh not [G: doth not accomplish] the righteousness of [BT: that which is righteous before] God.

1:21 Wherefore lay apart all filthiness and superfluity of naughtiness [GBT: maliciousness], and receive with meekness the engrafted word [GBT: word that is graffed in you], which is able to save your souls.     qtext

(Jas 1:19) GF4: 119, 279; GF7: 117 [122] GF8: 309 [418]; GFEJ 95, 471; MFU 238; IP3: 530

(Jas 1:21) GF3: 45, 50, 59, 86, 190, 281, 501; GF4: 97, 164, 265; GF5: 119; GF6: 202; GF7: 27 [19], 310 [259]; GF8: 16 [270]; MFS 35; MFU 212, 259, 272, 320; JN3: 748; WDS 253; IP1: 30, 359; IP2: 110, 147, 447; IP3: 241, 444, 488; RBA 143, 439; RBAF 102; TEM 19; EQ 81, 311, 401; HPS 257, 289, 521


(Jas 1:19)

GF4:279 (1661): But those now that profess the name of Christ, persecute one another ... which from Christ they have no command but to love one another [John 13:34], and to be swift to hear, and slow to speak, and slow to wrath [Jas 1:19].

GF8:309 (1690): with the spirit of God keep that down, which is doting about questions and strife of words [1 Tim 6:4], that tend to parties and contention.... And likewise not to speak more than one at a time [1 Cor 14:31]; nor any in a fierce way; ... but as the apostle saith, "Be swift to hear, and slow to speak [Jas 1:19];" and let it be in the grace, which seasons all words [Col 4:6].

MFU 238 (1657): Now dear Friends, in this quickening spirit [1 Cor 15:45], wherewith you are quickened out of the sleep of death and corruption, where Christ hath given you light, walk in him [Col 2:6], learn of him who is lowly, who is meek [Mat 11:29], and be swift to hear, slow to speak, and slow to wrath [Jas 1:19]....

(Jas 1:21)

[Other texts citing Jas 1:21: GF5:119 (under Jas 1:22), GF7:27 (Rev 14:7)]

GF3:59 (1659): He saith, "It is a fancy to say, the eternal word of God is in them." Thou art in the fancy in whom the eternal word is not witnessed ... and so art corrected by the apostle, who saith, "Let the word of God dwell in you richly" [Col 3:16], the "ingrafted word which is able to save your souls" [Jas 1:21], and "the immortal word."

MFU 211f (1656): Ye are made partakers of the free grace of God which brings salvation, so let it be your teacher [Tit 2:11f] & leader, & beware of turning his grace into wantonness [Jude 1:4] which is able to save your souls, but receive with meekness the ingrafted word [Jas 1:21]....

IP2:110 (1660): He that will be a true minister, must receive both his gift, his ministry, and the exercise of both from the Lord.... standing in the cross to his own understanding and wisdom [Prov 3:5?], giving forth the truths which the Lord chooseth to have him speak in the words which God chooseth, even in the words which are ministered to him by the power; in thus ministering he shall save his own soul, and those that hear him, even all who in fear and meekness receive the ingrafted word, which is able to save the soul [Jas 1:21].

HPS 257 (Joan Vokins, 1691): Oh then, did I want power (as many do now), not knowing the sufficiency of the engrafted word of God's grace that is able to save [Jas 1:21]; but when I followed its counsel, I found it sufficient [2 Cor 12:9] to bring good to me, out of great afflictions, beyond my expectation....


1:22 But be ye [T: And see that ye be] doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves [T: +with sophistry].     qtext

[Jas 1:22: cf Rom 2:13, Mat 23:3]

1:23 For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer [GT: hear the word and do it not], he is like unto a man beholding his natural [BT: bodily] face in a glass:

1:24 For he beholdeth [G: when he hath considered; T: as soon as he hath looked on] himself, and goeth [GT: he goeth] his way [B: ways], and straightway forgetteth [GBT: forgetteth immediately] what manner of man he was [BT: what his fashion was].

1:25 But whoso looketh into [GBT: in] the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed [T: happy] in his deed.     qtext

[Jas 1:25, cf Jas 2:12]

(Jas 1:22-25) GF6: 173; JN1: 193

(Jas 1:22) GF3: 242; GF4: 97; GF5: 119 GF6: 231; GF7: 22 [13], 28 [20]; JN3: 235; HPS 526

(Jas 1:22f) GFJN 528; GF6: 220, 266

(Jas 1:25) GF5: 213; GF7: 243 [229]; MFU 190; JN3: 211, 235, 247; RBA 204, 311; RBAF 154, 267; WPR 391; JWJM 167


(Jas 1:22-25)

JN2:193: [Jas 1:22-25, see under Jas 2:22-25]

(Jas 1:22)

[Other texts citing Jas 1:22: GF6:231 (under Jas 1:26f)]

GF5:119 (1675): For every one is to receive with meekness the word which is grafted in them, "which is able to save the soul. [Jas 1:21] For if ye be hearers of the word only and not doers, ye deceive your own selves." [Jas 1:22] Therefore, all ye that hear this ingrafted word. which is nigh in the heart and mouth [Deut 30:14], and do it not, ye are the deceivers of your own selves.

GF7:22 (1652): Therefore wait every one in the measure which God hath given you; and none of you be sayers only, but doers of the word [Jas 1:22/Mat 23:3].

(Jas 1:25)

GF: "royal law of liberty": [Jas 1:25/2:8/2:12]

GF7:243 (1663): The unity in the spirit is the bond of the Prince of princes' peace [Eph 4:3, Dan 8:25], and the fellowship in the gospel [Phil 1:5], and the liberty in it is a perfect one [Jas 1:25], above the imperfect, where is bondage.

RBA 311 (1678, XI.11): ...so long as [a man] acteth and moveth in the natural and corrupt spirit and will, and not from, in and by the power of God, he sinneth in all and is not accepted of God. For hence both the "ploughing and praying of the wicked is sin" [Prov 21:4]; as also whatever a man acts in and from the Spirit and power of God, having his understanding and will influenced and moved by it, whether it be actions religious, civil, or even natural, he is accepted in so doing in the sight of God and is blessed in them [Jas 1:25].

JWJM 167 (1772): And where owners of ships attain to the perfect law of liberty and are doers of the word, these will be blessed in their deeds [Jas 1:25].


1:26 If any man among you seem to be religious [BT: devout], and bridleth [GBT: refraineth] not his tongue, but deceiveth his own heart, this man's religion [BT: devotion] is vain.     qtext

1:27 Pure religion [BT: devotion] and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless [T: friendless] and widows in their affliction [GBT: adversity], and to keep himself unspotted from [GBT: of] the world.     qtext

(Jas 1:26) GF3: 362, 551; GF4: 202, 272, 314; GF5: 226; GF6: 220; GF7: 73 [58]; JN2: 63, 467, 561; JN3: 208, 424; WDS 111

(Jas 1:26f) GFJN 35; GF5: 119; GF6: 231, 375; GF8: 275 [399]; JN1: 6 (GF), 87

(Jas 1:27) GFJN 54; GF4: 135, 142, 163, 272; GF7: 14f [Tes], 145 [154], 167 [175], 243 [230], 324 [262]; GF8: 18 [274], 36 [287], 49 [300], 56 [306], 83 [317], 84 [318], 96,7 [320], 120,21 [321], 148 [349], 154 [353], 158 [354], 228 [382], 241 [389], 250 [392], 271 [398], 276 [399], 291 [404]; GFEJ 222, 240, 341f, 414, 445, 446; GFT 25, 35f, 149, 182, 205; MFS 24; MFU 25; JN3: 55; IP3: 217; IP4: 114, 122, 169; RBA 109; RBAF 81; EQ 341 (BC), 433 (GF), 530 (BR); HPS 205; 456 (MF); WPR 192, 235, 293, 640; WPT 45, 164; JWJM 103; SIW 151 [may be confl w Jas 3:17]


(Jas 1:26)

[Other texts citing Jas 1:26: GF4:202 (under Jas 3:6), GF5:226 (Jas 3:8f)]

GF3:362 (1659): So thou shouldst have been more meek and low in thy heart [Mat 11:29], and then thou wouldst have bridled thy tongue [Jas 1:26], and have learned of Christ [Mat 11:29], and so have come to the light [John 3:21], the sure foundation [Isa 28:16], out of the error of thy ways, and have kept in the footsteps of the flock [Song 1:8].

GF6:220 (1683): And likewise the apostle Jas ... taught the church to try the pure religion from the false, from such as seemed "to be religious, and bridled not their own tongues, that deceived their hearts" in their vain religion [Jas 1:26].

JN2:63 (1655): Is this thy religion? that knows nothing in thee to bridle thy tongue [Jas 1:26] and guide thee in the truth [John 16:13]? Thy refuge of lies must be swept away [Isa 28:17], and the Truth cleared.

(Jas 1:26f)

GFJN 35 (16–): And I was to bring people off from all the world's religions, which are vain [Jas 1:26], that they might know the pure religion, and might visit the fatherless, the widows and the strangers, and keep themselves from the spots of the world [Jas 1:27].

GF6:231 (1683): ...such as Jas speaks of in a "seeming vain religion [Jas 1:26]." which did not warm, clothe, and feed their brother and sister [Jas 2:15f], nor visit the fatherless and widows in their tribulation [Jas 1:27], etc. Such might be hearers and talkers of the word, but not doers of the word [Jas 1:22]....

(Jas 1:27)

GF: pure religion from above [Jas 1:27 confl w Jas 3:17]

[Other texts citing Jas 1:27: GF8:49 (under Mat 10:34), MFU 25, HPS 456 (2 Pet 2:20-22) ]

GF8:56 (1674): And there are many religions in the world, all which are spotted and defiled with the world's spirit [1 Cor 2:12], with which they do destroy one another; but there is but one pure religion from above, that is undefiled in the sight of God, and that keeps from the spots of the world, and leads to visit the widow and fatherless in their distress [Jas 1:27]; and they that receive this pure religion from God, (who is above,) it is by God's spirit, the fruits of which is love [Gal 5:22]...

IP4:122 (1671): ... the gospel fast ... is not to afflict the the soul, or to hang down the head like a bulrush for a day [Isa 58:5; quotes parts of 58:6f] ("to visit the fatherless and the widows in their affliction," and to keep oneself unspotted from the worldy spirit [Jas 1:27] and nature, which defiles, and so not touch the unclean thing [2 Cor 6:17].)

HPS 205 (Katharine Evans, 1662): Keep your souls unspotted of the world [Jas 1:27], and love one another with a pure heart [1 Pet 1:22], fervently serve one another in love [Gal 5:13]...

WPR 235/WPT 45 (1669): [men vainly imagine religion] to consist of the implicit subscription and verbal confession of men's invented traditions and precepts, while they neglect that more orthodox definition of the Apostle Jas [quotes Jas 1:27]; and instead thereof, believe they are performing the best of services, in sacrificing the reputation, liberty, estate, if not life itself of others to their own tentatious conceptions.

JWJM 103 (17–): If I go on a visit to the widows and fatherless [Jas 1:27], do I go purely on a principle of charity, free from every selfish view?

SIW 151 (Ann Crowley, 17--): blessed be his name, He graciously condescended to instruct my panting mind more fully in the nature and excellency of pure, undefiled religion [Jas 1:27];


2:1 My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory, with respect of persons.     qtext

2:2 For if there come unto your assembly [GBT: company] a man with [B: wearing] a gold ring, in [B: clothed in] goodly apparel, and there come in also a poor man in vile raiment;

2:3 And ye have respect to him that weareth the gay clothing, and say unto him, Sit thou here in a good [G: goodly] place; and say to the poor, Stand thou there, or sit here under my footstool:

2:4 Are ye not then partial in yourselves, and are become judges of [B: are made judges of; T: have judged after] evil thoughts?     qtext

2:5 Hearken, my [BT: +dear] beloved brethren, Hath not God chosen the poor of this world [G: +that they should be; B: +such as are; T: +which are] rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he hath promised to them that love him?     qtext

2:6 But ye have despised the poor. Do not rich men [G: Do not the rich; T: Are not the rich they which] oppress you [GB: +by tyranny], and draw you before the judgment seats [T: judges]?     qtext

2:7 Do not they blaspheme [T: speak evil of] that worthy [BT: good] name by the which ye are called [GBT: named]?     qtext

(Jas 2) JN3: 454; HPS 358 (EB)

(Jas 2:1-12) JN2: 64f, 243, 263f

(Jas 2:1-10) JN1: 52; JN2: 155; WPR 47, 49, 69

(Jas 2:1-9) GFJN 36; JN3: 425; EQ 342 (BC); WPR 55, 92

(Jas 2:1-4) GF4: 209; GF6: 220f; JN1: 21, 223

(Jas 2:1-3) GF8: 261f [397]; JN2: 101

(Jas 2:1) GF3: 81, 534, 545; GF4: 85; GFEJ 438; MFS 50; MFU 229; JN1: 133, 140, 181; 217 (GF), 281, 321, 493, 527; JN2: 43, 232; JN3: 11, 522; WPR 35

(Jas 2:1f) GF5: 119

(Jas 2:2-6) JN2: 262

(Jas 2:2-4) JN2: 32; EQ 260 (JN)

(Jas 2:2) GF4: 46

(Jas 2:4) GF4: 136; GF7: 145 [154], 177 [187]; JN1: 84, 103

(Jas 2:5) GF2: 324; GF7: 54 [45], 213 [213], 215 [215], 274 [244]; GF8: 46 [297], 152 [352], 288 [402]; GFT 42; WPR 73

(Jas 2:6) GF5: 276; JN2: 585

(Jas 2:7) GF7: 88 [79]


(Jas 2:1-12)

JN2:263f (1665): a 2-page tract on "The Royal Law and Covenant of God" [Jas 2:1-12].

(Jas 2:1-10)

WPR 69 (1669): ...the minds of people [are] alienated from heavenly things, and exercised about mere folly.... men become acceptable, by their trims and the a-la-modeness of their dress, and apparel; from whence respect to persons so naturally doth arise, that to deny it, is to affirm the sun shines not at noon day; nothing being more notorious than the cringing, scraping, sirring, and madoming of persons, according to the gaudiness of their attire [Margin: Jas 2:1-9]; which is most detestable to God, and so absolutely forbidden in the Scriptures, that to do it, is to incur the breach of the whole law, and consequently the whole punishment thereof [Jas 2:9f].

(Jas 2:1-3)

JN2:101: [Jas 2:1-3, see under Luk 13:32]

(Jas 2:1)

[Other texts citing Jas 2:1: GF3:81 (under Jas 2:9), WPR 35 (John 4:29)]

GF3:534 (1659): So ye that are in Balaam's way, loving the wages of unrighteousness [2 Pet 2:15], admiring men's persons because of advantage [Jude 1:16], ye are out of the faith that is held without respect of persons [Jas 2:1]....

JN1:493 (1655): ...our not putting off our hat before the magistrate; wherein we have the example of Christ and all the apostles and saints and are plainly forbidden to "have the faith of Christ in respect of persons" [Jas 2:1]....

(Jas 2:4)

GF7:177 (1659): ... being in the evil, darkness, and uncleanness, [the spirit of this world] judges all like unto itself with it evil thoughts [Jas 2:4], and casts out its flood of evil speaking and wickedness [Rev 12:15] upon the righteous and just, the saints of the Most High [Dan 7:18], whose garments are clean and pure.

JN1:84 (1653): with evil thoughts ye judge [Jas 2:4], who are ministers of Satan, and by the wicked imaginations of your own hearts counts truth blasphemy, and puts light for darkness [Isa 5:20], as ever the priests did.

(Jas 2:5)

GF7:54 (1653): They are the heirs of the kingdom of God [Jas 2:5], and of the generation of God, that live out of the kingdom of the wicked world, (up to God, in the seed, which all the promises of God are to [Gal 3:29],) following after Christ, who was in Egypt, and passed out of Egypt [Mat 2:15f], the house of darkness [Exo 10:21].

(Jas 2:6)

[Other texts citing Jas 2:6: GF5:276 (under Jas 5:5f)]

JN2:585 (1654): we may not daub with untempered mortar [Ezek 13:10f] nor flatter any for their riches.... Nor may we despise the poor [Jas 2:6], for the God of light is risen, & we have fellowship in him, and in his light we see light & discover darkness, and we may no longer put darkness for light [Isa 5:20] nor tell people they shall have peace in their wicked ways [Isa 48:22/Ezek 13:10] and so put death for life....

(Jas 2:7)

GF7:88 (1654): Oh! therefore, abide in that which hath called you, (which is holy and pure,) up to him who is holy and pure, and let the time past of your evil ways be sufficient [Mat 6:34?], wherein ye have lived in wickedness, and in the ways of this untoward generation [Acts 2:40]; lest your minds turn back into Egypt [Acts 7:39] and the world, and so cause the worthy name of the Lord to be blasphemed, (which hath called you,) [Jas 2:7] by turning aside, and growing into hardness of heart, and turning from a pure conscience, and making shipwreck of it, and of faith [1 Tim 1:19].


2:8 [G: +But] If ye fulfil the royal law according to the scripture [GT: +which saith], Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, ye do well:     qtext

[confl 2 Jas 1:25, 2:12; cf Lev 19:18, Gal 5:14]

2:9 But if ye have respect to persons [G: regard the persons; BT: regard one person more than another], ye commit sin, and are convinced [GBT: rebuked] of the law as transgressors.     qtext

[cf Lev 19:15, Deut 1:16f, Acts 10:34f]

2:10 For [BT: omit] whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend [G: faileth; BT: fail] in one point, he is guilty of all.     qtext

[cf Mat 5:19]

2:11 For he that said, Do [GBT: Thou shalt (2x)] not commit adultery, said also, Do not kill. Now if thou commit no [GBT: though thou do none] adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art become a transgressor of the law.

[Jas 2:11 cf Exo 20:13f, Rom 3:9]

2:12 So speak ye, and so do, as they that shall be judged by the law of liberty.     qtext

2:13 For he shall have judgment without mercy [GT: there shall be condemnation (T: judgment) merciless to him], that hath shewed no [GBT: sheweth no (G: not)] mercy; and mercy rejoiceth against judgment [G: condemnation].

(Jas 2:8-12) GF4: 85f

(Jas 2:8) GF3: 322; GF5: 213, 321; GF7: 196 [200], 308 [256]; GF8: 183 [361]; LB(LO-8); MFU 464f; IP2: 57, 65, 66; IP4: 255; TEM 179; HPS 531; WPR 226; WPT 30

(Jas 2:8f) GF7: 165 [172]; JN1: 140; JN2: 263

(Jas 2:9) GF3: 81, 86, 105, 186, 205, 224, 285, 349, 390; GF4: 33, 46, 198; 264; GF7: 85 [74], 193 [200]; DGA 67; MFU 281; JN1: 21, 32, 104, 181; 271 (GF), 223; 396 (JA), 527; JN2: 320; EQ 106 (JN); IP1: 80, 283, 327; WPR 580 [cf Lev 19:15, Deut 1:16f, Acts 10:34f]

(Jas 2:9f) MFS 50

(Jas 2:10) MFU 164; JN3: 461; IP2: 27, 61

[Jas 2:11 cf Exo 20:13f, Rom 3:9]

(Jas 2:12) GF4: 160f, 198; GF5: 155, 167; GF7: 196 [200]; GF8: 220 [380]; MFU 464; IP2: 65, 66; TEM 179; WPR 226; WPT 30

(Jas 2:13) JN3: 752


(Jas 2:8)

[Other texts citing Jas 2:8: GF8:183 (Rom 3:27), MFU 464f, TEM 179 (both Jas 2:12), HPS 531 (John 13:35)]

IP2:66 (1660): And this very law, "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" [Lev 19:18] is royal [Jas 2:8], and a law of pure liberty [Jas 2:12], and there is no bondage in it thus administered [Gal 4:24]: but let any man now read it in the letter, and strive to obey it to the utmost he can, he shall find it weak through the flesh, accusing and imbondaging him. And this is the reason Christians so mourn in their prayers, even as persons in bonds, because they know not the royal law of liberty; because they feel not the love which the Spirit begets, but strive to get the letter into their hearts, and to answer the commands of the letter with what love and obedience they can come at; and this (though not seeing into the true covenant and ministry of Christ) they call obeying in the spirit.

(Jas 2:8f)

[Other texts citing Jas 2:8f: JN2:263 (under Mat 7:12)]

GF7:165 (1659): that is the royal seed, and they that follow him, are of the royal priesthood, and holy people and generation [1 Pet 2:9], amongst whom is the royal law of love [Jas 2:8]; whereby we cannot respect men's persons, for he who doth, is convinced of the royal law, to be a transgressor [Jas 2:9].

(Jas 2:9)

[Other texts citing Jas 2:9: WPR 580 (under Mat 23:8)]

GF3:81 (1659): He saith, "The Quakers' spirit doth teach them to honour no man," &c.... That is a lie, for for it teacheth them to have all men in esteem, and to honour all men in the Lord [1 Pet 2:17]. Yet they are convinced by the law to be transgressors, if they respect men's persons [Jas 2:9]; and they are not to hold the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ with respect of persons as you do [Jas 2:1].

JN1:396 (John Audland, 1654): and the Lord is against you that are transgressors of his pure law, for he that respects persons commits sin [Jas 2:9], and the Lord will in no wise acquit the wicked [Nah 1:3]....

IP1:327 (1660): Did not Jas say, "if ye have respect to persons, ye commit sin, and are convinced of the law, as transgressors"? Jas 2:9. Of what law? Of the law of faith [Rom 3:27], which exalteth the new birth, and layeth flat the creature in its transgressing nature, estate, and honour. For, saith Christ, who received not honour from men [John 5:41] nor gave honour to men, "How can ye believe, which received honour one of another?" John 5:44.

(Jas 2:10)

MFU 164 (1666): All unrighteousness is sin, [1 Jn 5:17] & he that sins is of the devil [1 Jn 3:8] & he that breaks the least Commandment [Mat 5:19] is guilty of all [Jas 2:10].

IP2:61 (1660): ...the observing in Spirit any one [commandment] is the keeping of the law.... because no part of the law can be broken, but any one of these may be broken [Jas 2:10]. He that commits any sin breaks the gospel-sabbath, which is a resting from all sin and self-works [Heb 4:10]....

(Jas 2:12)

GF and others use "royal law of liberty" [Jas 1:25/2:8/2:12]

GF4:160 (1658, to the merchants of London): ask no more for the thing than you would have; be at a word, so say, so do [Jas 2:12]; when you ask more than you will have, or almost double, and say you will not take it except you have so much, and then send your boys after them, and so take it, you are not here at so say, and so do; and here you are judged with the law of liberty to be out of it, far off from the life of christians, like heathens in life and practise....

GF5:167 (1675): keep out of evil and condemnation, and be obedient to Christ's command, and the apostle's doctrine, not to swear at all, and keep to yea, yea, nay, nay in all your communications [Mat 5:34,37, Jas 5:12], and so say, and so do; not so swear, and so do, "as they that shall be judged according to the law of liberty [Jas 2:12]."

MFU 464f (1698): For our principle, which we testify of, is the Light of Jesus Christ, and his eternal Spirit, which leads into all truth [John 16:13] and righteousness, but not into any untruth, or evil actions; and if any bearing the same name amongst us, have transgressed against this precious truth and royal law of liberty, we do with the same spirit, judge and condemn them [Jas 2:8/12], wherever they are found.

TEM 179 (167-): Be therefore wise, ye kings instructed be /Ye rulers of the earth, and henceforth see / Ye serve the Lord in fear [Psa 2:10f], and stand in awe / Of sinning any more against the law, / His royal law of liberty [Jas 2:8,12]: to do /To others as you'd have them do to you [Mat 7:12].

(Jas 2:12)

JN3:752 (1655-6): And you say you are come to the Son and to freedom, &c., and you are all in love, as you say; but when judgment from God is sent amongst you, and falls upon that which is of the world where it finds you, then a fire kindles amongst you, and you have torment, and your love leaves you; which shows your love is not of God, which loves judgment, where mercy rejoiceth [Jas 2:13], whose love hath not torment nor fear.


2:14 What doth it profit [GT: availeth it], my brethren, though a man say he hath faith, and have not works [BT: deeds]? can [G: +that] faith save him?

2:15 If a brother or sister be naked, and [T: or] destitute of daily food,     qtext

2:16 And one of you say unto them, Depart in peace, be ye warmed and filled [G: warm yourselves, fill your bellies; T: God send you warmness and food]; notwithstanding ye give them not those things which are needful to the body; what doth it profit [G: helpeth it; B: shall it profit; T: helpeth it then]?     qtext

2:17 Even so faith, if it hath not works [BT: deeds], is dead, being alone [GBT: in itself].     qtext

2:18 Yea, a man may say, Thou hast faith, and I have works [BT: deeds]: shew me thy faith without thy works [G: out of thy works; BT: by thy deeds], and I will shew thee my faith by my works[BT: deeds].     qtext

2:19 Thou believest [BT: Believest thou] that there is one God ;[BT: ?] thou doest well: the devils also believe [G: +it], and tremble.     qtext

2:20 But wilt thou know [GT: understand], O [GBT: +thou] vain man, that faith without works [T: deeds] is dead?     qtext

(Jas 2:14-26) JN3: 211, 230, 391

(Jas 2:14-17) GF6: 220

(Jas 2:15f) GF4: 162; GF6: 231; GF8: 120 [321]; EQ 432 (GF); WPR 94

(Jas 2:17-20) GF6: 444; GF7: 131 [133], 243 [229]; GF8: 56 [306], 120 [321]; RBA 78, 83, 197

(Jas 2:17) JN3: 119

(Jas 2:18) HPS 372 (EB)

(Jas 2:19) GF3: 211, 471, 577; GF5: 199; MFU 66; JN2: 67, 161; JSS 17

(Jas 2:19f) GF5: 53

(Jas 2:20-24) EQ 327 (BC)

(Jas 2:20) JN3: 92


(Jas 2:15f)

[Other texts citing Jas 2:15f: GF6:231 (under Jas 1:26f)]

GF4:162, EQ 432 (1658): And again, all the while your poor, and blind, and lame cripples, and women, and children, are crying up and down your streets, and steeplehouse-doors, and alleys, and corners, after you that call yourselves christians, and yet they [are] christians as well as you, and so members of the same body [Rom 12:5]; so you may say, be clothed, be filled, be warmed, and be such a people the apostle speaks of, yet let them be crying up and down the streets not provided for [Jas 2:15f]; so this is to hang gold on one arm, and let the other go bare; or hang gold on the back, and let the leg go bare; for all are members of one body, the poor as well as the rich, and this declares that you are out of the law; [alludes to Deut 14:28f]

(Jas 2:17-20)

GF6:444 (168-?): Now satan's messengers and ministers deny this hope that purifieth people while they are on the earth, as Christ is pure [1 Jn 3:3]; they are in the hope of a hypocrite [Job 8:13] and a dead faith, as in Jas 2:17,18,20. And though they may call themselves believers, and say there is one God; the devils believe and tremble [Jas 2:19], so may a man in a dead faith say, in which there is not victory over the body of death and sin [Rom 7:24/6:6] whilst upon the earth, as they say.

RBA 197 (1678, VII.10): there is a great difference between the works of the Law, and those of grace or of the Gospel. The first are excluded, the second not, but are necessary. The first are those which are performed in man's own will and by his strength, in a conformity to the outward law or letter, and therefore are man's own imperfect works, or works of the Law, which makes nothing perfect [Heb 7:19].... The second are the works of the Spirit of Grace [Zech 12:10, Heb 10:29] in the heart, wrought in conformity to the inward and spiritual law: which works are not wrought in man's will, nor by his power and ability, but in and by the power and Spirit of Christ in us, and therefore are pure and perfect in their kind.... Such works we affirm absolutely necessary to justification, so that a man cannot be justified without them; and all faith without them is dead and useless, as the apostle Jas saith [Jas 2:17,20,26].

(Jas 2:18)

HPS 371f (Elizabeth Bathurst, 1679): [the Quakers] believe that inward righteousness is wrought by virtue of the grace of God, and is a necessary qualification to fit man for glory, which makes them choose with the apostle, rather than talk of the righteousness of faith, to show forth their faith by their works [Jas 2:18]; yet they do not expect to be saved, neither for their faith alone, nor by their works, but by Christ who worketh true faith.

(Jas 2:19)

JN2:160f (1656): Our 1st query is, What's the first principle of pure religion? .... if bare saying God is it be all thou can do in way of teaching, then you may stop your mouths ... for all can say that there is a God as well as thou; yea, the devil can preach that doctrine [Jas 2:19] but thou knows if thou had answered this query to the satisfaction of any honest desires, then thou must have confessed to the light that God hath given in Christ Jesus, to lead out of darkness (John 8:12).

JSS 17 (17–): It is not merely confessing, though in full assent to the truth of it, that Christ did come in that one outward body, that determines any one to be of God; the devils believe, and confess, and tremble [Jas 2:19]; but none truly and thoroughly confess him without knowing (in the present tense) that he "is come in the flesh" in themselves, spiritually.

(Jas 2:19f)

GF5:53 (1674): [quotes Jas 2:19] And so thou mayst believe there is a Christ, so did the devil, and thou dost well, but see if the devil's belief doth not condemn thee, but thou shouldst shew the works of thy faith and thy belief, that thy heart is purified [Acts 15:9], that thy faith be not dead [Jas 2:20]; for a dead faith will plead for a body of sin and death [Rom 6:6/7:24] to the grave, but the living faith, the gift of God [Eph 2:9], is the victory over it [1 Jn 5:4]....


2:21 Was not Abraham our father justified by [GBT: through] works, when he had offered Isaac his son upon the altar?     qtext

2:22 Seest thou [GB:+ not] how faith wrought with his works [BT: deeds (2x)], and by [GBT: through the] works was faith made perfect?     qtext

2:23 And the scripture was fulfilled which saith, Abraham believed God, and it was imputed [BT: reputed] unto him for righteousness: and he was called the Friend of God.     qtext

[cf 2 Chr 20:7, Isa 41:8; Rom 4:3,9; Gal 3:9]

2:24 Ye see then how that by works [BT: of deeds] a man is justified, and not by [BT: of] faith only.

2:25 Likewise also was not Rahab the harlot justified by [GBT: through] works, when she had received the messengers, and had sent them out another way?

2:26 For as the body without the spirit is dead, [GBT: +even] so faith without works [T: deeds] is dead also [GT: omit].     qtext

(Jas 2:20-24) EQ 327 (BC)

(Jas 2:21-24) WPR 227, 228f; WPT 31, 34

(Jas 2:21) IP4: 246

(Jas 2:22) DGA 76; JN1: 193

(Jas 2:23) GF3: 266; GF8: 228 [382], 286 [402]; GFT 8, 27; MFU 173, 261; IP1: 43 WPR 150, 239; WTG 106 (SM)

(Jas 2:24-26) RBAF 149

(Jas 2:24) GFEJ 453; JN3: 213; IP2: 349; IP4: 184, 198; RBA 195

[Jas 2:25 cf Josh 2:1-21]

(Jas 2:26) GF5: 46, 119; JN2: 81; JN3: 119; RBA 197; WPR 227, 507; WPT 31


(Jas 2:21-24)

WPR 227, WPT 31 (1668): Jas, ... who experimentally knew what true faith and justification meant, gave them to understand from Abraham's self-denying example [Jas 2:21-24; Gen 22], that unless their faith had the purity and power of God's grace, had that effectual operation to subdue every beloved lust, wean from every Dallila [Delilah, Judg 16], and entirely to resign and sacrifice Isaac himself, their faith was a fable, or as a body without a spirit [Jas 2:26]....

(Jas 2:22)

JN1:193 (1653): You envious ones, you want the bond of perfectness, which is charity (Col 3:14). You hypocrites, who hear, and say, and do not that which leads to it; how can you come to perfection? (Jas 1:22-25). You are too much in words but too little in practice to come to perfection; for faith is made perfect through works, and not through words (Jas 2:22; 1 Cor 4:20).

(Jas 2:23)

[Other texts citing Jas 2:23: IP1:43 (John 20:23), WPR 150 (under Heb 12:24)]

GF8:228 (1682): And Abraham was called the friend of God [Jas 2:23]; and so are all his children that are of his seed and faith, they are not friends of the devil, the wicked and unrighteous one, but him and his works they forsake, who are friends of God, they are friends of righteousness and holiness, &c.

WTG 106 (SM) He is our friend and oh! that our ship’s company were willing to be the friend of God [Jas 2:23] and his Christ and that they might be what he would have them to be for as said our Great Lord "you are my friends if you do whatsoever I bid you" [John 15:14]...

(Jas 2:24)

[Other texts citing Jas 2:24: IP2:349 (Rom 2:13)]

(Jas 2:26)

[Other texts citing Jas 2:26: RBA 197 (under Jas 2:17-20) WPR 227, WPT 31 (Jas 2:21-24)]

JN2:80f (1653): this faith we own and witness, which is not a talk of faith, as the world's professors, who say they have faith but are dead in sin and cannot witness the work of God in them (Jas 2:26); but that faith we own which is lively, by which the work of God is witnessed in us in working out sin, and by which we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works (Eph 2:10).

WPR 507 (1693): ...true faith in Christ cannot be without works, no more than a body can live without a Spirit [Jas 2:26]; and where there is life there is motion, and where there is no divine life there is [no] true faith [believing being a fruit of life].... The very believing is an act of mind, [concurring with God's working in or upon the mind] and therefore a Godly work..... [more]


This page last revised Sept 2007